Given the seriousness and negative consequences of the ambush marketing phenomenon, it was necessary to fight with great force and strength ambush marketing activities by developing effective prevention strategies. There might be two categories of strategies distinguished: reactive and proactive strategies (Burton & Chadwick, 2008). The most common proactive strategy is to pass normative acts regulating the issues of ambush marketing by the host-country of the sporting event.
The purpose of this paper is an analysis of Polish preparations to host the 2012 UEFA European Football Championship in the context of the legal response to unfair practices of ambush marketing.
The scope of existing legislation of general application provides sufficient protection for the obligations arising from the Polish international agreements. Issues relating to the protection of intellectual property rights are governed by acts dealing with combating unfair competition, copyright and industrial property law.
Poland has not introduced additional regulations protecting the rights of the organizers and official sponsors of major sporting events against fraudulent marketing activities. When analyzing the current legal status it can be concluded that Poland fulfilled the guarantees provided to UEFA. The government adopted the simplest solution: they accepted the facts and did not make any amendments to the existing legal system.
Models of Organisation of Youth Elite Sports Training System in Europe
The European Commission is aware of the professionalisation of sports and the requirements of profitableness that unavoidably induct risks for European young high-level athletes and takes care of their protection and of the quality of their training. Thus, the European Commission decided to realise a study on training of sportsmen/women in the 27 Member States of the European Union in order to be able to lead political or legal actions which would contribute to the promotion and development of high quality training.
The aim of the project was to identify ways of improving the legal and political framework for preserving and developing high-quality training for top-level sportspersons, particularly young sportspersons, in Europe. The study of the training of elite young sportsmen and sportswomen in Europe was conducted in all 27 Members States of UE in 2007. The research process was based on two main sources: legal and sports questionnaire.
This paper presents main models of organisation of youth elite sports training system. On the basis of the results of the study two main factors which have strong impact on the organisation of the training of young athletes were indicated: i) funding and supervision; ii) management of the training centres.
The organisation of sports in the different countries has a direct impact on the organisation of the training of young athletes. On the basis of obtained data 7 main models for the operation of training centres in all 27 UE countries depending on two axes: funding and management. There is no unified system of supervision of the funds as it depends on the national regulations. Therefore, the grade and methods of this control from public institutions is different in 27 UE member countries. In Poland we may observe a model based on public funding and a mix between sports clubs and national associations to operate the training centres.
Off-Field Competition at Major Sport Events. Case Study of 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa™
Over the past twenty years sponsorship has outperformed all other marketing communication tools in terms of growth. With their massive audiences, major sport events create great opportunity for global companies to showcase their brands and products. Due to rapidly rising costs for securing sponsorship rights, ambush marketing has emerged as a growing option for different kind of companies.
The aim of ambush marketing is to obtain more of the gains associated with an official event sponsorship but without incurring the same extent of its costs. "Ambushers" are becoming increasingly astute at developing ways to circumvent legal attempts to control non-sponsor marketing strategies.
Therefore, the aim of the paper is to introduce and categorize various ambush marketing methods and counter-ambushing strategies. As ambush marketing has shifted over time from broadcast sponsorship campaigns and venue surrounding advertising to more off-site venue marketing, it is also important to analyze how the organizers of major sport event prevent the event itself, the sponsorship rights and how they deal with ambush marketing issue. The case of 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa has been studied.
This is the fifth article of the cycle of portraits of the members of the Editorial Board and Editorial Advisory Board of the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research. These members are social scientists who research the issue of sport. Among them, there are many world-class professors, rectors, and deans of excellent universities, founders, presidents, and secretaries-general of continental and international scientific societies and editors of high-scoring journals related to social sciences focusing on sport. The idea of presenting portraits of individual editors of our writings has already gained recognition in the Far East. Editor-in-Chief Young Lee of the International Journal of Eastern Sports & Physical Education has decided to introduce Corner of Editors, which will also present all members of the Editorial Board.
The biography we present here in this volume of our journal refers to a Polish scholar, educationist, and manager, Monika Piątkowska, Deputy Editor of our Journal and Head of the Department of Organization and History of Sport at the Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education.
The main aim of the study is to verify how event involvement in the UEFA Euro 2012 influenced the recognition of both sponsors’ and ambushers’ brands. Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews were conducted on a representative sample of the Polish society (N = 1,000). On the basis of five groups of consumers regarding involvement in the event, authors examined brand recognition, using Top of Mind Awareness (TOMA) tests of official sponsors and ambushers.
The highest TOMA rate was observed in the group of heavy viewers. The lower the quantity and intensity of the matches watched, the lower the percentage of people who recalled a brand of the official sponsor at first. An inverse relationship exists in the case of people who identified the ambush marketers.
Ambush marketing phenomenon does not seem to threaten official sponsors of the event among consumers involved in the event. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to take into account the division between fans and non- fans of the event and level of their event involvement whilst measuring brand recognition.
It is noticeable that in the current literature the issue of effects of ambushing on consumers divided into groups of fans and non-fans has been largely ignored. Thus this study shows how important conducting a test of brand recognisability based on involvement of consumers in the sport event is.
Monika Piątkowska, Jolanta Żyśko and Sylwia Gocłowska
The aim of the paper was to outline and evaluate the existing scientific achievements regarding the phenomenon of ambush marketing in sport, mark the dominating problematic areas, and create a literature database for the purposes of further research. The systematic literature review was conducted in the following stages: planning and conducting the review, analysis, and description of the results. The preliminary analysis included a combined number of 21,176 studies published between 1984-2013 in journals, books, and other sources included in analyzed databases, chosen using a meta-keyword: ambush. Analysis of the subject literature on the phenomenon of ambush marketing in sport allows for the classification of the works into three dominating research areas: identification of ambush marketing phenomenon, identification of the influence of ambush marketing practices on consumers, and identification of counter-ambush strategies. This review indicates the need for secondary research in social sciences in a more systematic way and more rigorously than it was done until now.
Introduction and objective: In Poland, there are only a few studies that refer to the whole society’s participation in sport and recreation and that are based an the international questionnaire thus allowing for comparative analysis with other European reports. The aim of the study was to determine the association between leisure physical activity and socio-demographic variables. Methods: A survey based on CAPI was carried out in Poland from October to November 2012. A random sample of Polish adults (N=1,633) was interviewed using the IPAQ-long form. The data were analyzed using standard statistical procedures. Results: More than 21% of Polish subjects did not undertake any physical activity in their leisure time. Of those who were physically active, over 70% engaged in vigorous physical activity; only one in four respondents performed moderate physical activity or walking. The average leisure physical activity of the Poles was 1,916.9 ± 2,621 MET-min/week. A comparison of the current results and European research findings demonstrated that the median physical activity for the Polish population (MET-min/week) was similar to the median values for Czech subjects and Norwegian males and nearly three times higher than Croats. Conclusions: Insufficient participation in the conscious process of caring for one’s health is a common occurrence among adults living in the EU. In order to encourage the Polish population’s participation in physical activities, it is necessary to raise their awareness of the need of well-balanced, regular exercise. Furthermore, this study suggests that caution is warranted before using the CAPI technique to provide the IPAQ-long form survey.