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  • Author: Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk x
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Open access

Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Izabella Dolka, Edyta Świętoń and Krzysztof Śmietanka



Genotype VI of avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1) has pigeons and doves as its reservoir and is often termed pigeon paramyxovirus type-1 (PPMV-1). The pathogenesis of PPMV-1 infections in poultry is largely obscure. It is known that PPMV-1 requires a series of passages in chickens before it becomes adapted to gallinaceous poultry.

Material and Methods

Changes in the genome of PPMV-1 were analysed after serial passages in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, using high-throughput sequencing. Additionally, histopathological lesions induced by PPMV-1 in experimentally inoculated pigeons, chickens, and turkeys were evaluated.


Following six passages of PPMV-1 in chickens, 10 nonsynonymous substitutions were found including one (in the NP protein) which dominated the genetic pool of viral quasispecies. Histopathological changes induced by the post-passage PPMV-1 strain were more prominent than changes wrought by the pre-passaged PPMV-1 strain and the lesions were most intense in pigeons followed by chickens and turkeys.


PPMV-1 is highly adapted to pigeons and passaging through chickens results in the acquisition of novel amino acids in the polymerase complex, which may alter the pathogenic potential of the virus.

Open access

Joanna Sajewicz-Krukowska, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk and Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz


Introduction: Due to their immunostimulatory properties TLR ligands are used prophylactically to protect against a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens in mammals. Knowledge of the molecular and functional aspects of TLRs is essential for a better understanding of the immune system and resistance to diseases in birds. For that reason, this study attempted to determine the impact of TLR21 stimulation by its synthetic ligand (CpG ODN, class B) on the chicken immune system.

Material and Methods: Sixty embryonated chicken eggs were randomly allocated into three groups (control and two experimental groups). On day 18 of embryonic development, chickens in one experimental group were administered in ovo a low dose of CpG ODN and the birds of the second experimental group were given a high dose of the ligand. Spleens were collected at 1, 2, 5, and 10 days post-hatching (dph) for analysis of IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 expression using qRT-PCR.

Results: Significant differences were observed in mRNA expression levels of all the measured cytokines associated with the modulation and regulation of the immune response at different time points.

Conclusion: The obtained data clearly demonstrate that immune response induction takes place after in ovo administration of class B CpG ODN, and that the ligand has the ability to induce cytokine responses in neonatal chicken spleen.

Open access

Michał Jóźwiak, Krzysztof Wyrostek, Katarzyna Domańska-Blicharz, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Krzysztof Śmietanka and Zenon Minta


Introduction: The aim of the study was to test the utility of Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA® Cards) for molecular detection and storage of avian influenza virus (AIV). Material and Methods: There were two strains of AIV used in the study: low pathogenicity H7N1 and high pathogenicity H5N1 subtypes. Detection of viral material was conducted using molecular RT-PCR and rRT- PCR method. Results: The infectivity of LPAIV/H7N1 and HPAIV/H5N1 was completely inactivated within 1 h and 24 h after adsorption to FTA® Cards at room temperature, respectively. Viruses stored on FTA® Cards had detection limit approximately 1 log10 lower than live viruses. Viral RNA of both strains were detectable on the cards by rRT-PCR for a minimum of 150 d, irrespectively of storage temperatures (room temperature, -20ºC). RNA was also detected in all samples obtained from SPF chickens experimentally infected with HPAI/H5N1 on 3rd and 4th day post-infection (p.i.).

Conclusion: FTA® Cards enable safe and effective alternative transport of samples for molecular diagnosis of AIV.