The Różany Strumień catchment located in the north of Poznań is an example of a small anthropogenically-induced catchment. The main aim of this study is to analyse the variability of selected physical and chemical properties of surface waters in the catchment area in the years 1988-2012. It was found that surface waters in the catchment can be classified as hard and very hard, with slightly basic pH. The deterioration of Różany Strumień water quality concerns chemical oxygen demand, conductivity, chlorides, sodium, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen concentrations. The authors of the study have noticed a decrease in the amount of phosphates and sulphates in the water. As observed, the hydrogeochemical type of water changed from calcium-hydrogen carbonate-sulphate into calcium-sodium-hydrogen carbonate-sulphate-chloride. Changes in water chemistry are probably a result of anthropogenic impacts, and they can be associated with the transformation of land use in the catchment area, i.e. the ongoing urbanization of the area.
Monika Okońska, Marek Marciniak, Joanna Zembrzuska and Mariusz Kaczmarek
At present, concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface and ground waters are low; however, even low concentrations of certain substances may prove very harmful. One of such pharmaceutical drugs is diclofenac, a popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). For this reason, it is important to determine its mobility in groundwater and to estimate parameters of migration. Authors conducted column tests for two porous media: an artificial one, consisting of glass granules, and a natural one, i.e., sandur sand obtained from a site north of the city of Poznań (Poland). During the test, impulse breakthrough curves of chloride ions and diclofenac were recorded. The results were used to identify a specific sorption model and to determine values of migration parameters. Solutions of the inverse problem using optimisation methods and of equations of mathematical migration models were carried out in a MATLAB environment. Based on test results, the mobility of diclofenac is shown to be very high and comparable to that of chloride ions. The tests also revealed a slight and irreversible sorption of diclofenac on grains of both porous media.
Patrycja Misztal-Okońska, Mariusz Goniewicz, Magdalena Młynarska, Wojciech Krawczyk and Monika Butryn
Introduction. Chances for survival of a patient who has suffered from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) depend on a number of factors. One of the most important however, is the time within which the patient is provided with actions to restore normal heart function. In the Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015, The European Resuscitation Council states that defibrillation done within 3-5 minutes since a patient with SCA lost his/her consciousness can increase the survival rate up to 50-70%. However, such a short time of providing help is only achievable through the implementation of universal defibrillation programs and the automatic external defibrillator (AED) devices densely distributed in public places. By contrast, every minute of delay in defibrillation reduces the probability of survival by approximately 10-12% until the hospital discharge.
Aim. The purpose of the research was to elicit the opinions of adult respondents on first aid and the use of automatic external defibrillator (AED).
Material and methods. The research method used in this paper was a diagnostic survey, the technique was a web-based questionnaire, and a research tool was the authors’ own questionnaire survey. The survey was active between April 8, 2016 and May 20, 2016. During this time, 116 opinions were collected.
Results. As many as 77% of respondents declared that they had attended a first aid course, but 21% of them stated that they no longer remembered the knowledge acquired. The number of 63% of respondents did not know what an automatic external defibrillator is. Only 27% of respondents knew that AEDs are public devices, and only 47% believed that using an AED would not worsen the health of the victim.
Conclusions. The availability of AEDs and knowledge of their use are insufficient. Low social awareness and irrational fear of using an AED (fear of deterioration of the victim’s health) support the need for continuing education in this area.