The present study compared utterance texts of healthy individuals and individuals suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, by using a purpose-built Grammatico-Semantic Acceptability Quotient which examined the degree of linguistic acceptability of analyzed sentences. The study involved 130 hospitalized psychiatric patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and 130 healthy individuals. The study yielded the biggest so far corpus of marked utterance texts of schizophrenic patients in the Polish language. A total of 11,414 sentences were isolated, 7,180 of which were produced by individuals suffering from schizophrenia. The level of their acceptability was found to be considerably lower, especially in the case of sentences produced by patients with positive type schizophrenia.
The purpose of this article is to present the results of a frequency analysis of first-person pronouns and verbs in utterance texts of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Method: The study involved 130 hospitalized psychiatric patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and 130 healthy individuals. As a result of the study, the largest corpus to date of marked utterance texts of schizophrenic patients in the Polish language was obtained. The ratio of the number of singular first-person personal pronouns and verbs to the total number of personal pronouns and verbs used in any particular text was calculated and was then averaged for each of the four studied groups: a group of patients with positive schizophrenia symptoms, a group of patients with negative schizophrenia symptoms, a control group for the patients with positive symptoms, and a control group for the patients with negative symptoms. Results: The highest mean was found for the group of patients with positive schizophrenia symptoms, and the lowest for the group of healthy individuals. This difference was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The “egocentric orientation” and difficulty in defining one’s own identity experienced by psychotic patients, especially those with the positive type of schizophrenia, are reflected in their lexical choices.
Monika Obrębska and Sandra Nowak
The Level of Dogmatism in Schizophrenia. A Comparative Analysis of Utterance Texts with the Use of the Suitbert Ertel Dogmatism Quotient
The paper describes the results of comparative research on the level of dogmatism in the utterance texts of patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (N=130) and healthy individuals (N=130). The analysis was conducted with the use of the Suitbert Ertel Dogmatism Quotient. The results indicate significant differences between these two groups.
Monika Obrębska and Joanna Zinczuk-Zielazna
This paper presents the results of a frequency analysis of causal conjunctions and explainers in the speech of persons categorised as low-anxious, high-anxious, and repressors, selected according to the criteria of Weinberger et al. (1979). Ninety female students, assigned to three groups: high-anxious persons (n = 30), low-anxious persons (n = 30), and anxiety repressors (n = 30), gave a speech lasting several minutes concerning personality features that they liked or disliked in themselves. The results strongly confirmed the hypothesis that there are differences in the frequency of use of causal conjunctions and explainers between repressors, high-anxious, and low-anxious individuals. Their number is highest in the utterances of repressors and lowest in the utterances of low-anxious individuals. Our study demonstrates that the experiencing of anxiety does not in itself lead to an increase in the frequency of use of causal expressions. The key factor would appear to be a high level of defensiveness and absence of insight into one’s emotional states, characteristic of repressors. This may lead to a need to rationalise and to seek possible causes for the state of anxiety, which is externalised linguistically through the use of a high number of causal expressions.
Joanna Zinczuk-Zielazna and Monika Obrębska
A study was carried out involving persons representing high-anxious, low-anxious and repressor types according to the classification of Weinberger, Davidson & Schwartz (1979), selected using the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the trait anxiety scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In seeking indicators of anxiety in repressors and high-anxious groups, the authors decided to analyse the level of dogmatism observed in utterance texts. The research was intended to determine whether styles of coping with threatening stimuli condition the level of dogmatism, which was regarded as a cognitive defence mechanism against anxiety. The method of formal analysis of texts (speeches given by the participants in a situation of social exposure) was used to identify their level of dogmatism, measured using the Dogmatism Quotient developed by Ertel. The highest value of the Dogmatism Quotient was recorded for repressors, and the lowest for the low-anxious subjects; a similar pattern was also observed for certain particular dimensions of dogmatism. Statistically significant differences in the level of dogmatism were found between the repressor and lowanxious groups and between the high-anxious and low-anxious groups. The study confirmed the previously discovered pattern whereby repressors exhibit more similarities to high-anxious than to low-anxious persons.