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Open access

Monika Michalczuk, Krzysztof Damaziak and Antoni Goryl

Abstract

The study analyzed the growth of medium-growing chickens of the CCGP experimental line, using Gompertz, Logistic, and Richards models as well as body gain curves. The birds were reared until 9 wk of age. To fit BW values to the applied models, determination coefficients (R2

2) and standard error of the mean (±SE) were calculated for 487 male and 493 female chickens. The comparison of results obtained demonstrated the Gompertz model to be the most precise equation to describe the growth of both sexes of CCGP chickens, though in all examined models the determination coefficients were approximating 99%. According to the Gompertz model, the chickens may reach the maximum BW at the age of 16 wk (5900 g - males and 4000 g - females), whereas the maximum daily BW gain - on day 47 (69.0 g) in males and on day 41 (50.0 g) in females. Values achieved in the Logistic model were the most diverging from the values obtained with other models, whereas the Richards model may be successfully applied to estimate BW of chickens. Females were reaching the maximum BW gains earlier, but the curve of their BW gain was proceeding with two peaks (at ca. 4 wk - 313.09 g/wk and at 6 wk - 327.59 g/wk), which was probably due to partial growth deceleration as a result of allowing the birds to use free ranges on day 14. In the case of males, the maximum BW gain (727.35 g/wk) was reached at 6.2 wk.

Open access

Monika Michalczuk, Monika Łukasiewicz, Żaneta Zdanowska-Sąsiadek and Jan Niemiec

Abstract

The objective of this study was to establish the effect of rearing conditions of slowly-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens on selected quality attributes of their meat. Birds from the control group (C) were kept on litter over the entire rearing period, whereas these from the experimental group (E) - with access to free range since the 4th week of life. The birds were slaughtered on day 63, and collected samples of breast muscles were assayed for proximate chemical composition, technological properties, and fatty acid profile in intramuscular fat. The study demonstrated no significant differences in the chemical composition of muscles depending on rearing systems. Meat of chickens using free range was characterized by higher shear force (P≤0.01), which shows that it is tougher than the meat of chickens which do not use the free range. No significant differences were seen in physicochemical values when it comes to different systems of rearing. The access to free range has no influence on fatty acid formation either. The lack of significant differences indicates that the system of rearing has a minor effect on the quality of poultry meat.

Open access

Agata Marzec, Monika Michalczuk, Krzysztof Damaziak, Arleta Mieszkowska, Andrzej Lenart and Jan Niemiec

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of vitelline membrane and its correlation with other morphological traits and the viscosity of egg yolk of different poultry species: goose, turkey, Muscovy duck, chicken, guinea fowl and Japanese quail. Vitelline membrane strength (VMS) was defined as work and force after the deformation of yolk at 6 mm. Bird species affected the VMS of egg yolk. The lowest strength was measured for the vitelline membrane of goose egg yolk. There were no apparent differences in the strength of vitelline membrane for ducks, guinea fowl, chickens and Japanese quail. In contrast, the vitelline membrane of turkey egg yolk appeared to be of the highest strength. Statistically significant positive correlations were observed between VMS and yolk index, while there was no correlation between the weight of the eggs and egg yolk. The work deformation of yolk was positively correlated with the viscosity of poultry egg yolk.

Open access

Krzysztof Damaziak, Monika Michalczuk, Żaneta Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Jan Niemiec and Dariusz Gozdowski

Abstract

This study compared growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality rate and results of slaughter analysis of slow-growing Bronze turkeys (SG), fast-growing Big 6 turkeys (FG), and their reciprocal crosses (SF and FS). Until 6 weeks of age the birds were kept indoors and afterwards they were allowed to use free ranges. Toms were reared until 21 and hens until 15 weeks of age. The FS turkeys were characterized by higher (P≤0.05) BW and dressing percentage and by lower FCR compared to the SF crosses of both sexes. The analysis of orthogonal contrasts demonstrated that values of most of the slaughter analysis parameters were due to the additive effect of genes. Only weight of skin with fat and of gizzard could result from heterosis. Study results demonstrate that FS crosses constitute better material for the alternative production of turkeys compared to the other analysed groups (SG, SF, FG).

Open access

Monika Michalczuk, Monika Łukasiewicz, Jan Niemiec, Julitta Gajewska, Justyna Bartosik, Dorota Pietrzak and Katarzyna Sikorska

Abstract

The experiment was conducted on 480 Hubbard Flex chickens (fast-growing) reared to 42 days of age and 480 Hubbard JA 957 chickens (slow-growing) reared to 63 day of age. Day-old chicks were randomly assigned to the three following groups according to the type of coccidiostat: C (control - no coccidiostat in the diet and birds not vaccinated against coccidiosis), A (plant coccidiostat adiCox® AP), and M (monensin coccidiostat). At the end of rearing period the results of the controlled production were presented, the chickens were slaughtered and samples of their intestines were collected for microflora composition analyses. The obtained results show that rearing time influenced the composition of enteric microflora (small intestine and blind gut). Moreover, a higher total count of bacteria was stated in intestinal digesta of the slow-growing chickens that were kept for three weeks longer than the Hubbard Flex chickens.

The study also proved a positive influence of the diet on the quantitative composition of enteric microflora. The lowest count of mesophilic bacteria and those from the Enterobacteriaceae family was observed in the chickens receiving adiCox® AP compared to the chickens of the control group and those receiving monensin.

Open access

Artur Jóźwik, Ewa Polawska, Nina Strzałkowska, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Małgorzata Łysek-Gładysińska, Agnieszka Kamińska and Monika Michalczuk

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the activity of lysosomal enzymes: aminopeptidases, including alanine aminopeptidase (AlaAP), leucine aminopeptidase (LeuAP), arginine aminopeptidase (ArgAP), and glycosidases, such as β-galactosidase (BGAL), β-glucuronidase (BGRD), β-glucosidase (BGLU), N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (HEX), α-glucosidase (AGLU) and α-mannosidase (MAN) in the liver of ostriches (n = 80) fed diet supplemented with linseed (4% and 8%) and rapeseed (5% and 10%), with low and high level of vitamin E. (40 and 100 mg). The results indicate that higher level of vitamin E or 4% linseed supplementation in ostrich diet generally increase the activity of glycosidase enzymes and decrease the activity of aminopeptidases in the liver. The 8% linseed and rapeseeds feeding in decreased the activity of AlaAP, LeuAP, and ArgAP and increased only the activity of BGLU.

Open access

Marta Kupryś-Caruk, Monika Michalczuk, Beata Chabłowska, Ilona Stefańska, Danuta Kotyrba and Marta Parzeniecka-Jaworska

Abstract

Introduction: One aim of the study was to evaluate the impact when added to feed of the two potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum K KKP 593/p and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KKP 825 on production performance, health, and the composition of gut microbiota. The complementary aim was to assess the safety of these strains in broiler rearing.

Material and Methods: A total of 500 one-day-old Ross 308 chicks were divided into four groups. The experimental factor was the admixture of bacterial preparation to the feed at different doses: the recommended maximum dose, a dose ten times higher, the recommended minimum dose, and a zero dose for the control group not receiving bacteria.

Results: Addition of bacteria to the diets did not have a significant effect on the final body weight, final body weight gain, nor total feed intake or feed conversion. However, lactic acid bacteria had a positive effect on chicken health. Mortality among chickens fed with LAB was reduced. Moreover, LAB feeding inhibited the growth of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens in the intestines. There were no significant differences in chicken performance by dose of bacteria in the feed. The group dosed with LAB ten times higher than the recommended maximum did not demonstrate changes in biochemical or haematological parameters of blood compared to the remaining groups.

Conclusion: Feeding chicken broilers with two potentially probiotic LAB strains is safe and impacts animal health positively.