Monika Krajewska, Agnieszka Czujkowska, Marcin Weiner, Marek Lipiec and Krzysztof Szulowski
The paper describes avian tuberculosis in a captive bred cassowary. A two-and-a-half-year-old bird was obtained by a Polish zoo in 2010 from the Netherlands under conditions compliant with the recommendations of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. Despite being of small size for the age, the bird appeared healthy and showed no signs of the disease until the day when it was found recumbent in its pen. Later on it was euthanised due to lack of treatment possibilities. Pathological changes typical of avian tuberculosis were found in the liver and spleen. Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium was cultured from both organs.
Monika Krajewska-Wędzina, Anna Zabost, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Marcin Weiner and Krzysztof Szulowski
Introduction: Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease affecting humans and animals. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) – Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae, which are aetiological factors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). In Poland, the bTB eradication programme exists. Animals diagnosed with tuberculosis are in the majority of cases not treated, but removed from their herd and then sanitary slaughtered.
Material and Methods: In total, 134 MTBC strains isolated from cattle in Poland were subjected to microbiological analysis. The resistance phenotype was tested for first-line antimycobacterial drugs used in tuberculosis treatment in humans: streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The strains were isolated from tissues collected post mortem, so the test for drug resistance fulfilled only epidemiological criterion.
Results: The analysis of drug-resistance of MTBC strains revealed that strains classified as M. bovis were susceptible to 4 antimycobacterial drugs: isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, and ethambutol, and resistant to pyrazynamide. The strains classified as M. caprae were sensitive to all tested drugs.
Conclusion: The results indicate that despite enormously dynamic changes in mycobacterial phenotype, Polish strains of MTBC isolated from cattle have not acquired environmental resistance. The strains classified as M. bovis are characterised by natural resistance to pyrazinamide, which is typical for this species.
Karolina M. Wójciak, Monika Trząskowska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska and Zbigniew J. Dolatowski
The objective of this work was to study the oxidative stability of organic dry fermented probiotic sausages during long-term storage (6 months). Four test samples were prepared: sample A - control sausage, sample B - with 0.05% addition of sodium ascorbate, sample C - with addition of Lb. casei LOCK 0900 (2x106 CFU/g) probiotic strain, 0.6% of glucose, and 0.05% of sodium ascorbate, and sample D - with 0.05% of sodium ascorbate, probiotics, and 0.6% of lactose. The study covered evaluation of the ripening process (21 d) by evaluating loss in the sausage weight. The pH value, oxidation-reduction potential, TBARS values, acid number, peroxide number, browning index after ripening (0) and after 2nd, 4th, and 6th month of chilling storage were identified. The total colour difference of sausages subjected to 3 h exposure to fluorescent light, texture parameters, and count of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were identified after ripening (0) and after 6 months of storage. It was observed that an addition of probiotic bacteria and glucose (sample C) contributed to a significant decrease in the pH value and water activity in the sausage directly after ripening and during the entire chilling storage period. In samples with probiotics the option with glucose had a lower (P≤0.05) pH value by ca. 0.5 unit as compared to the sample with lactose. Significantly higher (P≤0.05) values of TBARS were observed in samples with probiotics as compared to control samples. The greatest oxidation stability during the entire chilling storage period was found in the sample with sodium ascorbate. Among samples with probiotic strain, the sample with glucose had the lowest peroxide number value (0.58-3.56 meqO2/kg) and TBARS (1.10-2.08 mg MDA/kg) but also the greatest colour stability during exposure to light. The order of decline in oxidative stability was: sample B > sample C > sample D > sample A.
Marcin Weiner, Maria Kubajka, Krzysztof Szulowski, Wojciech Iwaniak, Monika Krajewska and Marek Lipiec
The paper concerns molecular study on pathogenicity markers of fourteen Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolated from pigs in which initially positive serological reactions for brucellosis were observed (n = 41), healthy pigs, which were brucellosis-negative (n = 258), and wild boars serologically negative for brucellosis (n = 209). PCR identification proved that all isolates were ail, ystA- and myfA-positive. The plasmid encoding yadA marker was detected in nine isolates that originated from pigs serologically positive or negative for brucellosis, and from one isolate of wild boar origin. Furthermore, none of the examined isolates was ystB-positive. Results of the investigations indicate that the Y. enterocolitica O:9 isolates from pigs or wild boars, regardless of whether they were serologically positive or negative for brucellosis, may also be potentially pathogenic for humans, due to the presence of chromosomal and plasmid encoded molecular markers.
Marcin Weiner, Hanna Różańska, Maria Kubajka, Krzysztof Szulowski, Monika Krajewska and Bernard Wasiński
The aim of study was the preliminary evaluation of the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) - producing Escherichia coli in 650 milk and inflammatory secretions from cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis. One millilitre of the sample was added to Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with 6.5% NaCl, Tryptone Soya Broth with cefoxitin and aztreonam, and then to MRSA ID agar. Presumptive MRSA colonies were analysed for the presence of mecA gene. Parallel to MRSA identification, the samples were incubated in buffered peptone water, lauryl tryptose broth and McConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxim for ESBL-producing E. coli isolation. These bacteria were identified using API Rapid 32 E and the ability of ESBL production was initially established using disc test D68C and confirmed by MIC technique using Sensititre ESBL plates. The primers (blaCTX, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCMY-2-group) for the detection of some of the genes encoding ESBL production were used. The 45 strains of S. aureus with mecA gene and 41 strains of E. coli with blaTEM gene were detected.
The understanding of price-setting attributes operating on local real estate market is not only an essential element of property appraisers’ work, it can also greatly assist the professional activities of real estate agents. However, its primary importance is for the market – facilitating the decision-making processes of developers (developers become aware of the buyers’ expectations and preferences, making it possible to more accurately form market offers and pricing strategy).
With the use of computer-assisted interviewing, a questionnaire was designed to find out students’ preferences in the housing market of large Polish cities. The research was undertaken at six universities: Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poznan University of Economics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, and President Stanislaw Wojciechowski Higher Vocational State School in Kalisz. At each university, the survey was carried out on two groups of students: one included those who had chosen specializations related to the real estate market, the other one – students who did not explore the subject of the real estate market in their field of studies.
The research can make a significant contribution to the problems of real estate market analysis. The results are the first part of a broader concept of research, which ultimately aims to internationalize the findings.
Marcin Weiner, Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Dorota Plewik, Anna Pańczuk, Adam Szepeluk and Monika Krajewska
Introduction: Although HEV infection in pigs does not pose a major economic risk to pork production, the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans is an important aspect of public health. HEV genotype 3 infections were reported in developed countries in individuals who had consumed raw meat or meat products from deer, wild boars, or pigs. The aim of the study was the analysis of the occurrence of HEV-specific antibodies among wild boars and domestic pigs in Poland. Material and Methods: A total of 290 samples from wild boars and 143 samples from pigs were tested. The antibodies were tested by ELISA. Results: The presence of anti-HEV IgG was demonstrated in 44.1% of pigs and 31.0% of wild boars. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 1.4% of samples from pigs and in 2.1% of samples from wild boars at borderline level. The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the positive results for anti-HEV IgG between the groups of pigs and wild boars (P = 0.0263). Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the occurrence of HEV in swine and wild boars should be performed in the future.
Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Bogna Opala, Anna Krajewska-Patan, Zdzisław Łowicki, Waldemar Buchwald, Sebastian Mielcarek, Anna Bogacz, Monika Karasiewicz, Dariusz Boroń, Bogusław Czerny and Przemysław M. Mrozikiewicz
The aim of the study was the identification and quantitative analysis of phenylpropanoid compounds in the roots of Rhodiola species. Rosavin, rosarin and rosin were determined in the roots of R. kirilowii and R. rosea from the field cultivation, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants. For the quantitative analysis, the ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI MS/MS, Waters) was used. The results showed differences in the quantitative and qualitative assessments of these two species. In the root of R. kirilowii the presence of phenylpropanoids was not confirmed. In R. rosea the most common phenylpropanoid was rosavin (0.022%). The UPLC-MS/MS studies allowed to use this analytical method for determination of phenylpropanoids in the accordance with the requirements of ICH.
Leszek Guz, Zbigniew Grądzki, Monika Krajewska, Marek Lipiec, Anna Zabost, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Zofia Zwolska and Krzysztof Szulowski
Systemic mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in a group of ornamental fish. Although a large number of acid-fast bacterial rods were identified in the kidneys, liver, and muscles of each fish, no granulomas were observed in internal organs. Mycobacterium peregrinum was identified using the GenoType Mycobacterium CM assay. This study illustrates a considerable risk of atypical mycobacteriosis in humans.