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  • Author: Monika Kożuchowska x
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Abstract

Field experiments determined copper and zinc content and accumulation in yellow lupine roots, stems, leaves, flowers, pods and seeds. The test factors included development stages (BBCH 65 and BBCH 90) at which harvest was performed as well as nitrogen doses (0, 30, and 120 kg·ha−1) introduced to the soil prior to sowing. A higher copper content (by an average of 20.9%) and zinc content (by 53.7%) were obtained in the whole mass of lupine harvested at the flowering stage compared to that at the full maturity stage. Yellow lupine fertilised with 120 kg N·ha−1 contained and took up more copper and zinc than both lupine cultivated without nitrogen fertilization and fertilised with 30 kg N·ha−1. The application of different nitrogen doses had no significant effect on the contents of the micronutrients in the seeds of the test plant. The amount of copper and zinc accumulated in the seeds was the largest following the application of 120 kg N·ha−1. Lupine accumulated the largest amounts of both elements in the leaves irrespective of the development stage at which the harvest was carried out. The bioaccumulation factor for copper and zinc was higher in the lupine harvested at the flowering stage than in the lupine harvested at full maturity, but it was not significantly determined by the applied nitrogen fertilization. The values of translocation coefficient for the tested heavy metals, usually higher than 1, indicate significant potential for their accumulation in yellow lupine biomass. Under conditions of an increased zinc content in the soil, lupine green matter harvested at the flowering stage contained an above-standard amount of this heavy metal and could not be used for animal feed.

Abstract

The aim of the research was to evaluate the accumulation level of copper, zinc and nickel in forest mushrooms – Bay Bolete (Xerocomus badius), Saffron Milk Cap (Lactarius deliciosus), Rough-Stemmed Bolete (Leccinum scabrum), Slippery Jack (Suillus luteus) and Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera). The analysed mushrooms were obtained from growth forests located in the Masovian Voivodeship in the following counties: Siedlce, Sokołów, Łosice and Łuków. Total content of metals was determined using the method of atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma, after the earlier mineralisation of materials ‘by dry combustion’ in a muffle furnace at the temperature of 450°C, and after melting of ash in a 10% solution of HCl. In the soil samples taken from the places where the tested mushrooms occur, pH in 1 mol KCl·dm-3 and total content of copper, zinc and nickel were determined by the ICP-AES method after earlier mineralization in mixture of concentration HCl and HNO3 (3:1) in a microwave system. Test results were statistically analysed with the use of software STATISTICA 12 PL (STATSOFT, TULSA, USA). The analysed mushrooms had diverse content of the determined metals. The highest total average content of copper and zinc was present in Bay Bolete: 34.83 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Cu and 155.50 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Zn, and the highest average content of nickel was contained in Rough-Stemmed Bolete – 2.98 mg ∙ kg-1d.m.. The lowest average content of copper and zinc was determined in Rough-Stemmed Bolete: 11.98 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Cu and 91.90 mg ∙ kg-1d.m. for Zn, and lowest total average content of nickel was present in Bay Bolete – 1.05 mg ∙ kg-1d.m.

No excessive accumulation of examined heavy metals was stated in the analysed mushrooms species.