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Open access

Monika Janas and Alicja Zawadzka

Abstract

Energy willow as a species with broad adaptation possibilities, large production capacity and a wide range of applications, takes a special place among the plants grown for energy production. In this work an analysis was conducted in respect of the usefulness of this type of wood from experimental plantations as a clean source of energy generated in the combustion process. The heat of combustion and net calorific value of dry matter of energy willow wood, including selected sorts and classes of thickness were determined. Energy willow has a natural ability to accumulate heavy metals which are oxidized during the combustion process or remain in the ash, and consequently repollute the environment. In order to determine the environmental impact the content of heavy metals was examined in energy willow wood and in the soil of the experimental plantation. Metal concentrations were determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry method (AAS). Results of the tests confirmed a close relationship between the heat of combustion, calorific value and wood thickness as well as its location in the tree structure. Furthermore, very large differences were found in the content of heavy metals in the samples of both willow wood and soil. The levels of heavy metal content in the wood of energy willow determine the agricultural use of ashes produced during combustion.

Open access

Monika Janas and Alicja Zawadzka

Abstract

Industrial waste deposited in landfills poses a threat to the environment and can cause its deterioration. The physical and chemical processes that result in the formation of a number of harmful substances occur in the mass of stored waste. When released to the environment these compounds can be dangerous to all its elements, especially to groundwater. The monitoring of landfill impact plays an important role in assessing the state of the environment. It allows us to follow what changes take place in the waste bed itself, and in particular elements of the environment. On the basis of long-term monitoring studies (conducted in the years 1995-2016), the quality of groundwater around the industrial waste landfill in Zgierz was determined and its impact on the environment was characterized. The quality of conducted monitoring was assessed in relation to the current regulations. Analysis of the results of groundwater quality tests confirms that the industrial landfill in the operational phase due to a number of applied security measures has not contributed to the deterioration of groundwater quality. In the post-operational phase, groundwater contamination is observed, and consequently irreversible changes occur in the environment. The negative impact of the landfill can be due to the disruption of sealing layers and elution of pollutants from the waste by rainwater. The landfill site monitoring plays a key role in assessing causal relationships occurring between the state of the landfill and elements of the environment in its vicinity.

Open access

Jana Závacká and Monika Bakošová

Abstract

The paper presents an approach for robust PI controller design for a system affected by parametric uncertainty. The method is based on plotting the stability boundary locus in the plane of controller parameters that is called (kp, ki)-plane. Designed robust PI controller is implemented for control of two counter-current tubular heat exchangers in series with uncertain parameters, in which kerosene as a product of distillation in a refinery has to be cooled by water. The controlled variable is the temperature of the outlet stream of the kerosene from the second heat exchanger and the control input is the volumetric flow rate of the inlet stream of the cold water in the second heat exchanger. Simulation results of robust PI control of heat exchangers are also presented.

Open access

Monika Barancová, Jana Bírová and Zdena Kráľová

Abstract

This paper follows the tradition of sociolinguistic research of speech and it aims to examine the impact of some socio-demographic variables on the occurrence of the inter-lingual phenomena in Slovak utterances of Slovak immigrants in Spain. It is based on the theory of language contacts and focused on a synchronic aspect of the issue.

Open access

Ewelina Wierzejska, Jana Krzysztoszek and Monika Karasiewicz

Summary

Introduction: The use of dietary supplements has been observed for many years. Unfortunately, the status of food supplements and main differences between these and drugs remain unknown to most consumers.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to analyze the opinions of future healthcare professionals on dietary supplements, their behavior concerning food supplementation, as well as their knowledge on the safety of these products.

Methods: The survey was conducted among 354 future healthcare professionals, using a questionnaire composed of 21 items exploring demographic characteristics, knowledge of supplements, reasons for the use of dietary supplement, and recall of the use.

Results: All respondents knew that the purpose of using these products is supplementation. A vast majority of respondents (83.9%) thought that a diet with no supplementation is possible or probably possible. 49.4% of respondents (n=175) declared taking food supplements. The most commonly used ones (68.6%) were products recommended during illness and used to improve the condition of skin, hair, and nails. Moreover, dietary supplements mentioned by students included those containing herbal ingredients, such as: Equisetum arvense, Allium sativum, Panax ginseng, and Ginkgo biloba. Most of respondents buy dietary supplements at pharmacies (89.14%).

Conclusions: Use of dietary supplements is widespread among students. Future healthcare professionals have a better knowledge on food supplementation than population of Poland in general, however, they still need good education in this matter.

Open access

Jana Špulerová, Monika Drábová and Juraj Lieskovský

Abstract

Traditional agricultural landscapes are a mosaic of small-scale arable fields and permanent agricultural cultivations such as grasslands, vineyards and high-trunk orchards. Most of them are threatened by abandonment as they are usually situated in marginal mountain regions with less favourable conditions for agriculture. Our aim was to analyse the distribution of traditional agricultural landscapes in less favoured areas and the effects of the supportive measures of the Common Agricultural Policy, which are oriented towards helping farmers from these areas in maintaining traditional agriculture. Except for traditional agricultural vineyard landscapes, almost all TAL plots are situated in less favoured areas. Most of them are located in mountain areas with less favourable conditions for agriculture. Abandonment of traditional agricultural landscape inside the less favoured areas is significantly higher than in locations elsewhere. The supportive measures of the Common Agricultural Policy do not effectively mitigate this abandonment. If we would like to maintain traditional agricultural landscape in less favoured areas, it is necessary to stop the existing negative trend of abandonment and search for new ways to motivate farmers to continue their traditional farming by adjusting the conditions of the common agricultural policy to benefit small farmers as well.

Open access

Monika Johansson, Jana Tomankova, Shengjie Li and Galia Zamaratskaia

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to develop a robust method for the simultaneous determination of the activities of three porcine CYP450 enzymes in hepatic microsomes. A cocktail consisting of three selective CYP450 probe substrates, 7-ethoxyresorufin (CYP1A), coumarin (CYP2A) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC; CYP3A), was incubated with porcine liver microsomes. The presence of 7-ethoxyresorufin appears to significantly influence the kinetics of coumarin hydroxylation and BFC O-debenzylation. These results indicate that the use of 7-ethoxyresorufin in substrate cocktails together with coumarin and BFC should be avoided.

Open access

Monika Čuláková, Silvia Vilčeková, Jana Katunská and Eva Krídlová Burdová

Abstract

In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

Open access

Monika Bardáčová, Yevheniia Konotop, Zuzana Gregorová, Miroslav Horník, Jana Moravčíková, Ján Kraic and Ildikó Matušíková

Abstract

Cadmium is a serious environmental pollutant and its uptake by plant represents a serious health risk. Uptake, accumulation as well as sensitivity of soybean plants to metals have been shown to vary with genotype, while the dynamics of this uptake has rarely been studied. Here we studied the uptake and accumulation of Cd2+ ions in different parts of soybean plants of four cultivars Moravians, Gallec, Kent and Cardiff. The plants at early developmental stage were immersed in Hoagland nutrient solution in the presence or absence of 50 mg.L−1 and the isotope of 109Cd2+ to monitor its accumulation continuously at 24 h intervals for 10 days. Our results showed that the uptake rate varied among the cultivars, being the highest in roots of the cv. Moravians and the lowest in the cv. Gallec. We also observed a non-even distribution of radioactivity within the entire plants of individual cultivars. The most of Cd2+ isotope was translocated into primary leaves and leaves in the cvs. Kent and Moravians; on the contrary, relatively less in the cvs. Cardiff and Gallec. The results were fitted with genetic potential, growth as well as defense parameters such as proline accumulation. Combining uptake dynamics and biochemical data are indicative for different tolerance strategies of soybeans.

Open access

Andrea Lauková, Anna Kandričáková, Jana Ščerbová, Renáta Szabóová, Iveta Plachá, Klaudia Čobanová, Monika Pogány Simonová and Viola Strompfová

Abstract

Enterococcus faecium EM41 is an isolate from ostrich faeces. It produces a thermo-stable proteinaceous substance, bacteriocin (enterocin) EM41 with the highest inhibition activity in late logarithmic phase of growth (25 600 AU/ml). This strain and its enterocin have not been previously tested in animals. Lohmann Brown laying hens (aged 45 weeks) were involved in this model/pilot experiment, divided into 3 groups 6 birds in each. E. faecium EM41 applied was a variant treated with rifampicin (109 cfu/ml, dose 400 μl/animal/day) to differentiate it from the other enterococci. Partially-purified enterocin EM41 (Ent EM41, dose 40 μl/animal/day) and its producer were applied to water for 21 days. The experiment lasted 35 days. Sampling was performed at days 0-1, 21 (3 weeks of additive application), 35 (2 weeks after cessation of additive application) from every bird. E. faecium EM41 sufficiently colonized the intestinal tract of laying hens from the initial concentration 109 cfu/g, its count reached 4.30 log cfu/g at day 21. PCR genotypization confirmed the identity of the EM41 strain with the species Enterococcus faecium. E. faecium EM41 and its enterocin EM41 showed antimicrobial effects demonstrated by reduction of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp. and Campylobacter spp. The hens were Salmonella spp. free. After administration of both additives, phagocytic activity was stimulated with a significant increase. The additives did not negatively influence biochemical and haematological parameters or weight gains.