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Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski and Piotr Goliński

Changes in Glucose, Fructose and Sucrose Contents in Storage Roots of Asparagus During Vegetation Period

The objective of the field experiment conducted during 2000-2002 was to determine changes in glucose, fructose and sucrose contents in storage roots of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) cv. ‘Thielim’ during vegetation period. The aim of the study was also to estimate the correlation between yield and the content of carbohydrates. Sum of glucose, fructose and sucrose contents (GFS) and sucrose contents in storage roots of asparagus decreased at the beginning and increased at the end of harvest. Generally glucose and fructose for carbohydrate contents increased, while that of sucrose decreased. A possitive correlation was observed for sucrose and GFS between asparagus spears and storage roots (r=0.821 and r=0.641, respectively). A negative correlation between the yield of spears and glucose, sucrose and GFS contents in storage roots was found (r=0.595, r=0.624, r=0.794, respectively). Positive correlations were found between total yield during harvest and year of cropping, average GFS content in storage roots during harvest, sum of radiation during harvest, while negative correlation between total yield and sum of average daily air temperature during harvest was found.

Open access

Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Jerzy Stachowiak, Monika Gąsecka and Mikołaj Knaflewski

Sugar Content in Spears Versus Asparagus Yielding

This research was focused on determination of the correlation between soluble sugar content in green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears and yield. In 2000-2002, green spears of the cultivar 'Thielim' were cut every day from the end of April to the middle of June. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose content was determined every 10-14 days by means of an HPLC method. The content of fructose was not correlated but the ratio of fructose to glucose content was positively correlated with the yield (r=0.92). When the ratio of fructose to glucose content in spears increased by 0.13, the yield increased by about 1 t·ha-1. Content of glucose, sucrose and soluble sugar were negatively correlated with yield (r = -0.76 r = -0.77 and -0.79, respectively). When glucose, sucrose and soluble sugar content in spears decreased by 0.29 mg·g-1, 0.20 mg·g-1 and 0.85 mg·g-1, respectively, the yield increased by about 1 t·ha-1. During the first twenty days of harvest the calculated amount of soluble sugar accumulated in harvested spears was correlated with the yield in the remaining harvest period as well as in the whole harvest season. The effect of temperature and solar radiation on the yield and sugar content in spears is discussed in the paper.

Open access

Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski and Piotr Goliński

Correlations Between Asparagus Crop and the Year of Cropping, Day of Harvest, Sugar Contents in Storage Roots and Spears and Air Temperature

The study, carried out at the "Marcelin" Experimental Station in Poznan during harvest seasons 2000-2002, was focused on the determination of the correlation between daily yield of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and soluble sugar contents in spears and storage roots, temperature, the year of cropping and day of harvest.

A positive correlation between daily yield and the year of harvest, daily fructose content in storage roots and spears, sucrose content in spears and temperature was documented, in contrast to the negative correlation with glucose and sucrose contents in roots, glucose content in spears and daily yield.

Open access

Mikołaj Knaflewski, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Monika Gąsecka and Jerzy Stachowiak

Yielding of Asparagus Depending on Harvest Ending Date

The field experiment focused on the determination of yielding of asparagus cv. ‘Thielim’ in relation to harvest duration: traditional (until June 20th), shortened (June 10th) and prolonged (30th June) harvests. The variation in harvest ending dates did not have a significant influence on the total, marketable and non-marketable yields as well as on the crown weight and the number of storage roots. However, the extension of harvest time until June 30th resulted in an increase in the number of spears in the total and marketable yields, accompanied by a decrease in their diameter. Also prolonging harvest affected negatively the summer stalk size. During harvest until June 10th asparagus plants probably did not use their full yielding potential, because of too short harvest time. It resulted in increased height, weight, light absorption of summer stalks, leaf area index (LAI) and the total of cross-section areas of summer stalks (PPPA) with no significant differences in yield.

Open access

Monika Gąsecka, Kinga Drzewiecka, Marek Siwulski and Krzysztof Sobieralski

Abstract

White rot fungi (WRF) are known to have the ability to degrade organic pollutants with a structure similar to lignin. Because of this, the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners no. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 by substrate before fruiting (substrate) and/or after fruiting (SMS) from cultivated mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes and Agaricus bisporus was examined. The experiment was carried out in four replications for each treatment using a mixture of substrate/SMS and sandy soil with PCBs at a concentration of each congener at 50 and 100 μg kg−1 soil DW. The results indicate that degradation was dependent on substrate/SMS addition, the concentration of PCBs and time of incubation. The efficiency of PCB degradation was generally reduced with the number of chlorine atoms in the structure of congeners: 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 or 180. In all combinations, degradation increased with incubation time. Degradation by SMS was lower in comparison to degradation by a substrate of the same mushroom. The degree of degradation of a single PCB after 12 weeks of incubation for A. bisporus ranged from 31.32 ± 1.52 to 83.91 ± 1.07%, while for P. ostreatus it was between 37.88 ± 2.54 and 78.29 ± 1.41%; for L. edodes it ranged from 17.38 ± 1.06 to 75.30 ± 1.46%. The best average degradation was confirmed for 20% SMS of A. bisporus at 50 μg kg−1 PCB.

Open access

Alina Kałużewicz, Monika Gąsecka and Tomasz Spiżewski

Abstract

Biostimulants are commonly used in horticulture, primarily to increase yield quantity and quality, as well as plant tolerance to stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of amino acid-based biostimulants and amino acids in combination with Ascophyllum nodosum filtrate, applied during the growing season on the phenolic content in broccoli heads both after harvest and after long storage in a cold store. The seedlings were planted in mid-July, and heads were harvested from September to October in each year of the study. Ascophyllum nodosum filtrate at a concentration of 1% was used during seedling production. The plants were watered with biostimulants twice, in the fourth and fifth week after sowing. They were also sprayed with amino acid-based biostimulants (1.5 dm3 ha-1) three times, i.e. after the second, fourth and sixth week after planting. The biostimulants were not used in the control treatment. After harvest, the heads were stored for three weeks in a cold store at 1-2°C and 95% RH. Chemical analyses of total phenolic, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids, and of quercetin and kaempferol were carried out on samples of fresh broccoli and after the first, second and third week of storage. It was found that the application of biostimulants resulted in a significant increase in the total phenolic content, sinapic acid content, as well as quercetin content. Both in the control treatment and in the plants treated with the biostimulants, the concentration of all the tested phenolic compounds increased with the duration of storage.

Open access

Monika Gąsecka, Włodzimierz Krzesińsk, Jerzy Stachowiak and Mikołaj Knaflewski

Abstract

In order to determine the effect of temperature on asparagus yielding in the case of different crown sizes, asparagus plants were planted in growth chambers, in an aeroponic system with recirculation. The results show that asparagus yield was dependent on air temperature and crown size; however, crown size had a greater influence on the yield. The diameter and weight of the asparagus spears were also dependent on crown size. Higher dry weight content, degrees Brix, fructan and total carbohydrate content in storage roots were documented in large crown asparagus plants before and after harvest. Large sized crowns were also shown to build thicker and higher ferns.

Open access

Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak and Mikołaj Knaflewski

Abstract

In order to examine the effect of plant age on asparagus yielding, the number and weight of spears were analyzed. The experiment was carried out on 1-, 4- and 7-year-old plants in the aeroponic system with recirculation. The results showed that the spear number and thus also the yield were not plant age dependent, while spear diameter and their weight were. Taking into account both crown weight and the age of plants, a 26% variation in spear diameter and a 27% variation in mean spear weight were explained. Determination of dry weight and carbohydrate contents in storage roots showed these traits to be independent of asparagus plant age, except for total carbohydrate content per plant. During harvest dry weight, % Brix, sucrose, fructan and total carbohydrates contents losses were also recorded.