The Application of Zoo-Fish Technique for Analysis of Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Equidae Family
Genome analysis is necessary to trace evolutionary rearrangements and relationships between species. Initially, to this end, the tools of classical cytogenetics were used but along with the development of molecular cytogenetics methods it became possible to analyse the genome more thoroughly. One of the widely used methods is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and its different types. Zoo-FISH, or cross-species chromosome painting, which uses painting probes specific for whole chromosomes, enables detecting homologous synteny blocks, the occurrence of which is evidence that species share a common ancestry and are related. Zoo-FISH technique is complemented by FISH with probes specific to chromosome arms or repetitive sequences (telomeres, centromeres), which provide additional information about karyotype organization, as well as karyotype polymorphism and conservation. Another method used is FISH with gene-specific probes, which enable the localization of single loci, thus making it possible to determine linkages between genes and verify data obtained after using painting probes in Zoo-FISH technique. Because of its diverse karyotype and rapid karyotypic evolution, the Equidae family is an ideal object of study using a number of methods based on in situ hybridization, which, in turn, enables information to be obtained at many levels of DNA organization.