Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) represents a potentially lethal disease, and survival depends primarily on the early initiation of appropriate treatment. As the clinical picture at presentation is usually common, frequently this could lead to misdiagnosis and delays in the initiation of the proper therapy. The case of a 43-years old female who developed a staphylococcal septic shock syndrome caused by a forgotten intravaginal tampon is reported.
In acute cardiac care, the timely initiation of life-saving measures proved to be life-saving and requires many organizational and logistic measures. One of such measures is represented by the development and implementation of a regional network dedicated for the treatment of major cardiovascular emergencies, a strategy that proved to significantly reduce mortality rates on short and long term. This review aims to describe the current status in the development of regional networks in three of the main cardiovascular emergencies: acute myocardial infarction, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and acute stroke. The concepts demonstrating the utility of such networks, together with their results in reducing cardiac events, are presented in this paper.
Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) has the highest long-term mortality rates of all acute coronary syndromes. Usually, NSTEMI occurs in elderly patients (>75 years of age) with multiple associated diseases. The complication rate for NSTEMI, including heart failure or hemorrhages, is significantly higher than that in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. The case reported is of a 70 year-old male, with a history of ventriculoperitoneal shunt for obstructive hydrocephalus following a traumatic brain injury, who presented with NSTEMI.
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) occurring as the first manifestation of an acute myocardial infarction is associated with very high mortality rates. As in comatose patients the etiology of cardiac arrest may be unclear, especially in cases without ST-segment elevation on the surface electrocardiogram, the decision to perform or not to perform urgent coronary angiography can have a significant impact on the prognosis of these patients. This review summarises the current knowledge and recommendations for treating patients with acute myocardial infarction presenting with OHCA. New therapeutic measures for the post-resuscitation phase are presented, such as hypothermia or extracardiac life support, together with strategies aiming to restore the coronary flow in the resuscitation phase using intra-arrest percutaneous revascularization performed during resuscitation. The role of regional networks in providing rapid access to the hospital facilities and to a catheterization laboratory for these critical cardiovascular emergencies is described.
Theodora Benedek, Monica Marton Popovici and Dietmar Glogar
This review summarizes the most recent developments in providing advanced supportive measures for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and the results obtained using these new therapies in patients with cardiac arrest caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Also detailed are new approaches such as extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), intra-arrest percutaneous coronary intervention, or the regional models for systems of care aiming to reduce the critical times from cardiac arrest to initiation of ECPR and coronary revascularization.