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Teodora Chiţă, Monica Licker, Alexandra Sima, Adrian Vlad, Bogdan Timar, Patricia Sabo and Romulus Timar

Abstract

Background and aims: There is evidence that patients with diabetes have an increased risk of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTI is the most common bacterial infection in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of UTIs among hospitalized diabetic patients and to identify the most frequent bacteria responsible for UTI. Material and methods: The study population included 1470 diabetic patients (847 women and 623 men), admitted to the Diabetes Clinic of the Emergency Clinical County Hospital Timişoara, between January and December 2012. We collected patients’ personal history data and performed urine cultures. For statistical analysis we used Graph Pad Prism 5; the significance of the difference between the percentage values was assessed using Fisher’s exact test. Results: From the total number of patients, 158 had positive urine cultures, meaning 10.7%. Out of the total number of 158 UTIs, 124 (78.4%) were asymptomatic bacteriuria. The most frequent bacteria involved in UTI was Escherichia coli (68.9%). Conclusion: UTIs are frequent in diabetic patients. Because of the great proportion of asymptomatic forms among diabetic patients, the urine culture should be performed in all hospitalized patients with diabetes.

Open access

Monica Licker, Roxana Moldovan, Elena Hogea, Delia Muntean, Florin Horhat, Luminița Baditoiu, Alexandru Florin Rogobete, Emil Tîrziu and Csilla Zambori

Abstract

The term biofilm designates an aggregate of microorganisms belonging to one or more species which adhere to various surfaces but also to each another. These microbial communities are included and interconnected within an organic structure known as slime, composed of protein substances, polysaccharides, and DNA.

The Center for Disease prevention and control considers infections with bacteria in biofilms among the 7 most important challenges which must be overcome in order to improve the safety of health services. The risk of microbial biofilm development exists for a long list of medical devices and equipment, as well as in certain diseases such as cystic fibrosis. An aggravating aspect is represented by the almost 1,000 times higher antimicrobial resistance of bacteria growing and multiplying within biofilms. Thus, in case of biofilm-infected medical devices, the resistance to antimicrobial treatments requires the removal of the device which essentially means the failure of the exploratory or therapeutic intervention in question.

The role of microbial biofilms in medical pathology is a subject that raises interest for both researchers and clinicians in order to establish new methods for prevention and treatment of biofilms. This paper is intended as an overview in the management of microbial biofilms, presenting future insights, with technological progress in microscopy, molecular genetics, and genome analysis. Therefore the present paper will focus on describing the mechanisms involved in biofilm development, biofilm related infections, methods of detection and quantification of microbial communities and therapeutical approaches.