In order to investigate the influence of biological and chemical fertilisers on morphological traits, yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a field experiment was conducted in Maragheh (37°23' N; 46°16' E), in north western Iran, for one year in the 2014 growing season. The effect of seven treatments was evaluated: T1 - control (no fertiliser application), T2 - seed inoculation with P biofertiliser (contains phosphate solubilising bacteria; Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and Pseudomonas putida strain P13), T3 - seed inoculation with N biofertiliser (contains Azotobacter vinelandii strain O4), T4 - foliar application of iron chelate, T5 - soil application of complete NPK, T6: foliar application of manganese chelate, and T7 - foliar application of zinc sulphate. The result showed that although application of N biofertiliser did not have a significant effect on the evaluated traits, P biofertiliser slightly improved grain yield. However, the application of complete NPK fertiliser improved most of the traits, compared to the control and biofertiliser treatment. The best performance was obtained by foliar application of manganese chelate and zinc sulphate. The results showed that micronutrient-deficiencies have to be managed to unlock the potential yield of safflower in semiarid production systems.
Twenty-five lentil ( Lens culinaris Medik.) genotypes were studied to evaluate the effects of the SiO2 nano-particles on plants under salt stress. The experiment was a 3×25 factorial arrangement with three levels of treatment solutions as (T1) distilled water as control, (T2) 100 mM NaCl concentration and (T3) 1 mM nano-silicon dioxide concentration plus 100 mM NaCl concentration, and 25 levels of lentil genotypes. Results showed a significant reduction in germination percent and seedling growth due to the salinity stress while significantly increased with silicon nano-particles application. The germination percentage, shoot length, root length, seedling fresh weight and seedling dry weight traits showed significant differences among lentil genotypes in treatment solutions. Results indicated that adding SiO2 nano-particles could improve germination and seedling early growth under salinity stress and the related traits were increased in all of lentil genotypes. Overall, application of SiO2 nano-particles was beneficial in improving salinity tolerance in the lentil seedling and its application may stimulate the differences defense mechanisms of plants against salt toxicity.
Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide, which limits crop production. The chickpea cultivation areas of Iran are fourth in the world after India, Pakistan and Turkey while most areas (95 %) are planted in rainfed condition and are grown in rotation with cereals. This investigation was carried out to investigate the effect of drought stress seed yield characteristic in seven genotypes of chickpea. A field experiment with two humidity regimes (stressed and non-stressed) was performed in a randomized complete block design layout with three replicates. The analysis of variance for both potential yield (YP) and stress yield (YS) indicated significant differences among seven chickpea genotypes. Also, significant differences were observed among chickpea genotypes regarding twelve drought tolerance indices. Based on the YP, the genotypes FLIP 03-64C, FLIP 98-106C, Arman and Azad had the highest yield under non-stressed condition, while the genotypes FLIP 98-106C and Azad displayed the highest yield under stressed condition. Therefore, the genotypes FLIP 98-106C and Azad are good candidates for commercial recommendation to farmers in both rainfed and irrigated conditions. The relationships among drought tolerance indices are graphically displayed in a plot of two first principal components analysis. The first and second components justified 95.46 % of the variations between criteria (59.36 and 36.10 % for PC1 and PC2, respectively). The STI, K1STI, MP, GMP and PI indices exhibited strong correlation with YP, while YI showed strong correlation with YS; therefore, YS can discriminate drought tolerant genotypes with high grain yield under stress conditions.
Silicon is one of the most widespread macro elements that have beneficial effects on plant growth. Although its positive effects on plant growth and development have been widely considered, little information is available about possibility of nano-silicon utilization in seed invigoration treatments. Enhanced seed germination may lead to improved stand establishment and it can play important role in successful crop production. Partial hydration of the seeds followed by dehydration in a controlled environment often results in rapid seed germination and more uniform seedling emergence compared to untreated seeds. In the present study, the effect of seed soaking in different concentration nano-silicon solutions (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h) on germination characteristics of sunflower was investigated. Seed soaking in low concentration nano-silicon solutions (0.2 and 0.4 mM) significantly reduced days to 50% germination and mean germination time and improved root length, mean daily germination, seedling vigour index and final germination percentage. These results suggest that the incorporation of nano-silicon in priming solution, in an appropriate concentration, remarkably enhances germination performance and causes an effective invigoration of the seedling. These results underline the importance of pre-sowing seed soaking in diluted nano-silicon solutions for improving the germinability of sunflower.
Sabaghnia N., Janmohammadi M., 2014: Interrelationships among some morphological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using biplot [Kviečių (Triticum aestivum L.) veislių morfologinių požymių sąveika naudojant biplot metodą]. - Bot. Lith., 20(1): 19-26.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major food crops worldwide and Iran produces about 14 million tons of wheat annually. Effective interpretation of the data on breeding programmes is important at all stages of plant improvement. The cultivar by trait (CT) biplot was used for two-way wheat dataset as cultivars with multiple traits. For this propose, 13 wheat cultivars with specific characteristics were tested and the CT biplot for wheat dataset explained 65% of the total variation of the standardized data. The polygon view of CT presented for 18 different traits of wheat cultivars showed six vertex cultivars as G3, G4, G5, G9, G11 and G12. The cultivar G4 had the highest values for most of the measured traits. Generally based on vector view, ideal cultivar and ideal tester biplots, it was demonstrated that the selection of high grain yield will be performed via thousand seed weight, spike length and grain diameter. These traits should be considered simultaneously as effective selection criteria evolving high yielding wheat cultivars because of their large contribution to grain yield. The cultivars G3 and G4 could be considered for the developing of desirable progenies in the selection strategy of wheat improvement programmes
Current experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar application of different nutrients (control, nano-chelated Fe, nano-chelated Zn, nano-TiO2, nano-Si) on seed yield and morpho-physiological characteristics of oilseed rape cultivars (Hydromel, Neptune, Nathalie, Danube, Alonso). The highest pod numbers was achieved by foliar application of Zn and nano-SiO2 in cv. Hydromel and Neptune. The heaviest seeds were recorded for plants treated with nano-SiO2. The highest seed yield was recorded for cv. Hydromel and Neptune treated with Fe and nano-TiO2. The highest indole acetic acid was recorded in cv. Hydromel treated with Zn and nano-SiO2. The evaluation of plant pigments revealed that foliar application of nano-SiO2 and TiO2 significantly increased the concentration of carotenoids and Chlorophyll a, b. Overall, the results indicate that cultivating the high yielding hybrids (Hydromel, Neptune, Nathalie) along with the application of iron, SiO2 and TiO2 nano-particles can greatly improve plant performance
Semi-arid environments are characterized by low soil organic matter, lack of sufficient precipitation and occurrence of high temperatures at the terminal of growing season. Effects of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) and ascorbic acid (AS) during vegetative and reproductive stages at three farmyard manure (FYM) rates (zero (FYM1), 15 (FYM2), 30 (FYM3)t·ha-1) were studied on the growth and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) under supplemental irrigation of semi-arid highland in the north-west of Iran. The results revealed that application of farmyard manure especially at high level could significantly increase the morp-ho-physiological traits such as plant height, first pod height, plant canopy spread, rooting depth, the number of root nodules, ground cover, chlorophyll content and relative water content. Although improving effects of SA and AS on growth parameter were less than FYM, plants treated with SA showed better performance than plants treated with AS. A similar status was observed for grain yield and yield component. So the highest grain yield was recorded at FYM by foliar application of SA. It can be concluded that FYM3 as the most promising manure application rate was adopted to improve both root and total above-ground plant growth. Also this work highlights the importance of exogenous application of growth regulators in lentil cropping systems in semi-arid region with the Mediterranean climate.
Variation of traits is a primary need of any plant breeding effort that involves the natural evolution and causes sustainable crop production under different environments. Fifty six bread wheat genotypes grown during the growing season of 2012/2013 were evaluated for variability characteristics for eighteen traits i.e., stem diameter, plant height, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, tiller number, internode length, peduncle length, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain number, awn length, grain diameter, grain length, number of days to flowering, thousand seed weight and grain yield. Significant differences were observed for all the traits studied, indicating a considerable amount of variation among wheat genotypes for each trait. The estimates of the coefficient of variation (CV) were high for grain yield and number of tillers per plant. Spike length varied from 8.95 in G28 to 4.74 in G40, while genotype G20 had the maximum floret number (19). According to thousand seed weight, genotype G55 had the maximum thousand seed weight (45.57 g) and genotype G4 had the maximum grain yield performance (6936.3 kg ha-1). The information on diversity among the agro-morphological traits of the studied wheat genotypes will be helpful to plant breeders in constructing their breeding materials and implementing selection strategies.
In the current study, influences of chitosan solutions on morphological characteristics, growth and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris Med.) under rainfed conditions have been investigated. A field experiment was conducted in the Northwest of Iran using a split-plot experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The response of twelve genotypes with different origins to chitosan application at the sowing (seed soaking), vegetative and reproductive stage (spraying chitosan onto leaves) was evaluated. Results revealed that chitosan application could significantly improve the number of pods per plant, 100-seed weight, grain yield per plant and harvest index in comparison to control plants. The comparison of yield components between chitosan treatments showed that spraying chitosan during the reproductive stage was more efficient than in other stages. However, the responses of the number of pods per plants and grain yield per plants to chitosan treatments were significantly different among the genotypes. Although the highest grain yield was recorded in the 78S 26013 genotype (from Jordan), its response to chitosan treatments was different from the other genotypes and showed the best performance in plants obtained from seed soaked in chitosan solutions. We suggest that the application of chitosan as an agronomic management strategy be further investigated for an efficient technique to induce resistance in lentil plants against biotic and drought stress in semi-arid regions.
Moldavian balm is an annual herbaceous plant and its lemon-scented leaves contain essential oil. However, weeds adversely affect its growth by release of allelochemicals, and/or direct competition for nutrient, moisture, light and space. Current experiment was conducted to evaluate the different weed control methods including preventive approach (soil pasteurization), mechanical methods (one hand weeding, two hand weeding, and successive hand weeding for weed free condition), and chemical control by synthetic herbicides (haloxyfop-R-methyl and trifluralin). Results revealed that stem diameter, quantity of secondary branches, flower-bearing branches and leaves were significantly affected by weed control treatments; the highest lateral growth was obtained by successive mechanical weed control and two hand weeding method, respectively. This trend was also observed in canopy spread and chlorophyll content. Pre-emergence control by trifluralin considerably accelerated the initiation of flowering in Moldavian balm. However, observation of qualitative traits showed that the highest essential oil content and oil yield was obtained when the plants grew in weed free soil which was pasteurized. Considering the recognized essential oils, the most responsive composition was including Geranial, Geranyl acetate, Neral and Geraniol. The lowest amount of Neral was recorded in postemergence control performed by means of haloxyfop-R-methyl herbicide.