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Shumank Deep, Mohd Asim and Mohd Kashif Khan

Abstract

Practically speaking, not all real estate construction projects are accomplished in the defined span and within budget. Various factors responsible for occurrence of delays are one of the long-standing issues in the field of real estate. Delays make contractors endure productivity loss, cause high disturbance expenses, and prolongation costs. The aim of the research is to summarize several delay causing factors, which are observed in the execution of previous real estate construction projects. It then proposes implementation of standard prevention procedures to minimize delays. Time effect examination is the approach to evaluating and allotting the upshots of delays or changing a venture schedule. This review sets execution framework of the two sub-principles of the Toyota Way attributes known as philosophy sub-principles and process subprinciples to guide real estate construction businesses in their lean change to delay free real estate construction work. These are implemented after investigating the critical factors responsible for delays in the delayed projects by comparing their as-planned schedules with the adjusted schedules. Methods used in the research include structured surveys and content analysis, which is performed after collection of quantitative data from the respondents. The lean construction principles will be designed and provided to clients to be productive in performing work packages on their scheduled time with minimum possibility of time overrun.

Open access

Shakeel Ahmed Ansari, Rukhsana Satar, Syed Kashif Zaidi, Mohd Jahir Khan, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Mohammed H. Al-Qahtani and Mohamad Yusof Maskat

Abstract

The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa) on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.