In the present study, experiments were conducted in a large-scale flume to investigate the issue of local scour around side-by-side bridge piers under both ice-covered and open flow conditions. Three non-uniform sediments were used in this experimental study. Analysis of armour layer in the scour holes around bridge piers was performed to inspect the grain size distribution curves and to study the impact of armour layer on scour depth. Assessments of grain size of deposition ridges at the downstream side of bridge piers have been conducted. Based on data collected in 108 experiments, the independent variables associated with maximum scour depth were assessed. Results indicate that the densi-metric Froude number was the most influential parameter on the maximum scour depth. With the increase in grain size of the armour layer, ice cover roughness and the densimetric Froude number, the maximum scour depth around bridge piers increases correspondingly. Equations have been developed to determine the maximum scour depth around bridge piers under both open flow and ice covered conditions.
Recent studies have shown that the presence of ice cover leads to an intensified local scour pattern in the vicinity of bridge piers. To investigate the local scour pattern in the vicinity of bridge pier under ice-covered flow condition comparing to that under open channel flow condition, it is essential to examine flow field around bridge piers under different flow conditions. In order to do so, after creation of smooth and rough ice covers, three-dimensional timeaveraged velocity components around four pairs of bridge piers were measured using an Acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV). The ADV measured velocity profiles describe the difference between the velocity distributions in the vicinity of bridge piers under different covered conditions. Experimental results show that the vertical velocity distribution which represents the strength of downfall velocity is the greatest under rough covered condition which leads to a greater scour depth. Besides, results show that the turbulent intensity increases with pier size regardless of flow cover, which implies that larger scour depth occurs around piers with larger diameter.