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Meimanat Hosseini-Chavoshi, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi and Peter McDonald

Abstract

The Islamic Republic of Iran has experienced a remarkable demographic transition over the last three decades. As a result of social, demographic and economic changes, Iran’s fertility declined from 7.0 births per woman in 1980 to around 1.8 to 2.0 in 2011 based on our estimation (McDonald et al. 2015). The initial rise and rapid fall of fertility accompanied by a decline of child mortality led to a post-revolutionary youth bulge in the age distribution that will lead to rapid ageing in the longer-term future. Others have argued that Iran’s fertility has fallen to much lower levels - as low as 1.5 births per woman (eg. Erfani 2013). Such low estimates led to the Government of Iran adopting a pronatalist policy with the aim of increasing fertility, although the components of the policy are still under discussion. Different views have been expressed on the role of family planning and other programs in meeting population policy goals in Iran in the future with some advocating the discontinuation of government assistance to family planning. This paper aims to review the trends and levels of fertility, marriage, and family planning and their implications for policy. Using various datasets and detailed parity-based measures of fertility, the dynamics of fertility regulation practiced by Iranian couples are investigated. Our findings suggest that contraceptive use stabilized before 2000 and postponement of the first child and wide birth intervals are the main contributors to the level of fertility. Therefore, instead of discontinuation of the family planning program, policy to sustain fertility at its present level or a little higher needs to focus upon improving the economic circumstances of young people so that they are able to make less constrained choices about family formation than is the case at present.

Open access

Hosseini Seyed Mehdi, Mikaeil Reza, Ataei Mohammad and Reza Khalokakaei

The coal mine mechanization is important to achieve optimum quality and maximum efficiency of coal production. Mechanization is an objective that can result in significant cost reductions and higher levels of profitability for underground mines. The potential of coal mine mechanization depends on some important factors Such as seam inclination and thickness, geological disturbances, seam floor conditions and roof conditions. These factors should be considered in coal mine mechanization analysis. In this study, the new classification was developed with the respect to the mentioned factors. Using this system the coal seam mechanization index (CSMi) of several types of coal seams was evaluated and classified into five categories; very good, good, medium, low and very low. As a case study, the mechanization of the Takht coal seams in Golestan area of Iran was investigated using this new classification system. The results show a low potential for mechanization in most of the Takht coal seams

Open access

Amir Jalilian, Mohammad Khoshdel, Javad Garousi, Hassan Yousefnia, Mohammad Hosseini, Saeed Rajabifar and Daryoush Sardari

Development of a radiolabeled β-human chorionic gonadotropin

β-Human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) was successively labeled with [67Ga]-gallium chloride after conjugation with freshly prepared diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dianhydride (ccDTPA). After solid phase purification of the radiolabeled hormone, high performance liquid chromatography showed radiochemical purity higher than 95 % under optimized conditions (specific activity = 22-23 TBq mM-1, labeling efficiency 80 %). Preliminary in vivo studies (ID g-1, %) in male wild-type rats showed marked gonadal uptake of the tracer after 240 minutes in agreement with the biodistribution studies and reported β-hCG receptors. Target to blood ratios were 5.1 and 15.2 after 3 and 24 hours, respectively, while target to muscle ratios were 35 and 40 after 3 and 24 hours, respectively.

Open access

Syyed Mohammad Reza Parizadeh, Syyed Mohammad Reza Kazemi-Bajestani, Abbas Shapouri- Moghaddam, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Habibollah Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza Majdi, Ali Emadzadeh, Mohammad Safarian, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Golam Hossein Khodaei, Syyed Javad Hosseini, Syyed Mohammd Javad Parizadeh, Mohammd Reza Oladi and Gordon Ferns

Abstract

Background: We have previously reported that serum zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are affected by a number of factors. In the current investigation we have investigated the association between serum Zn and Cu concentrations and socio-economic factors in an Iranian population.

Materials and methods: A Persian sample population (n = 2233; n = 1106 (49.5%) males and n = 1127 (50.5%) females) was recruited by cluster-stratified sampling. Individuals were aged 15-65 years, and included urban and rural residents of the Great Khorasan province, Iran. Anthropometric measurements, serum Zn and Cu analysis and socio-economic status were determined using standard protocols.

Results: The mean serum Cu and Zn concentrations for the whole group were 14.7±3.3 μmol/L (range 4.5-28.4 μmol/L), and 11.7±1.9 μmol/L (range 3.6-28.3 μmol/L) respectively, and the mean serum Zn:Cu ratio for the group was 0.83±0.2. The highest mean copper concentrations were found in the age range 50-59 years (p < 0.01). The total population of urban residents had higher serum zinc (p <0.01) and lower serum copper concentrations (p <0.05) than rural residents. Poorly educated male subjects had significantly higher serum concentrations of copper than males in the other subgroups (p <0.001). Serum Cu and Zn:Cu ratio were associated with height and body mass indices (p <0.01).

Conclusion: Low serum zinc and copper appears to be common in Persian individuals. Urbanization and also educational attainment may contribute to changes in serum levels of Cu and Zn. This is probably related to lifestyle habits.