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  • Author: Mohammad Ebrahim Farashiani x
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Open access

Gholamhossein Shahraki and Mohammad Ebrahim Farashiani



Gel baits are important for integrated pest management (IPM). The relative efficacy of various baits is unknown.


To evaluate the efficacy of different gel belts (hydramethylnon 2%, fipronil 0.05%, and imidacloprid 2.15%) for control of Blattella germanica (German cockroach) infestation.


All the tested (field) strains were collected from housing in Yasuj city, Iran. Ten German cockroaches for each developmental stage were placed in separate labeled glass rearing jars of the same size. Mortality was observed at 12 h intervals after exposure to baits. Each study was conducted in triplicate.


All gel baits produced 100% mortality of cockroaches within 1 to 5 days. However, imidacloprid killed cockroaches more rapidly (LT50 = 13.3 h) than fipronil (LT50 = 32.5 h) or hydramethylnon (LT50 = 61.6 h). The results showed rapid, quick, and slow action for the three baits respectively. Comparison between the baits showed that the slow action bait is more compatible with IPM, being the most effective in 3 or more days; increased potential for secondary mortality through horizontal transmission of lethal dose and also via residue; decreased risk of food contamination by dead cockroaches; will decrease the chance of behavioral resistance, and it had higher feeding stimulation potential than the others.


Hydramethylnon is preferred for IPM. Fipronil is a plausible alternative.

Open access

Shiva Parsia Aref, Oruj Valizadegan and Mohammad Ebrahim Farashiani


The insecticidal effects of Eucalyptus dundasii Maiden essential oil was studied on the adults of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and the saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Essential oil was obtained by the hydro-distillation method and essential oil composition was analysed by GC-MS. Chemical analysis indicated that 1,8-cineole (54.15%), p-cymene (12.41%), α-thujene (11.37%), and E-caryophyllene (6.7%) were major constituents. For R. dominica and O. surinamensis, the LC50 of E. dundasii essential oil was 41.69 and 57.92 μl · l-1 of air, respectively. Increasing the concentration of the essential oil and the exposure time, increased mortality. The durability of fumigant toxicity on O. surinamensis adults was higher than on R. dominica adults and was statistically different. Based on the mean of the repellent indexes and the standard deviation, E. dundasii essence was repellent for both insects at 70, 140, and 280 μl · l-1 of air concentrations. Statistical analysis showed that Relative Growth Rate (RGR) in O. surinamensis was higher than in R. dominica, and the Relative Consumption Rate (RCR), the Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested food (ECI), and the Feeding Deterrence Index (FDI) in O. surinamensis was lower than in R. dominica. The many diverse bio-effects of E. dundasii essential oil confirmed that it is a good candidate for management of R. dominica and O. surinamensis