Myostatin (MSTN), a negative regulator of skeletal muscle development, acts as a potential candidate gene used to increase muscle mass. Likewise, sheep MSTN gene has an important role in meat production. MSTN is made up of 376 amino acids, and is synthesized as a precursor protein. To investigate the MSTN in Iranian native Makuei sheep, a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood samples. A 417-bp of MSTN intron I segment was amplified using locus-specific primers. Four SSCP patterns were identified and nucleotide sequencing of the Makuei sheep MSTN gene was done and registered in the NCBI GenBank with “KJ526625” number. Three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the samples. These SNPs are found in 224bp, 226bp and 242bp locations. Accordingly three substitutions (c.224C>T; c.226A>G; c.242G>T) were observed in the intron 1 region of MSTN gene. The effects of the observed SNPs on breeding values of some biometric traits were investigated and the substitution of c.226A>G was found to be associated with heart girth (HG) and leg circumference (LC). Phylogenetic analysis, based on the nucleotide sequences indicated similar evaluation with the GenBank reference sequences. It seems that the observed polymorphisms of the ovine MSTN gene are associated with HG and LC traits.
Dosimetric characterizations of GZP6 60Co high dose rate brachytherapy sources: application of superimposition method
Background. Dosimetric characteristics of a high dose rate (HDR) GZP6 Co-60 brachytherapy source have been evaluated following American Association of Physicists in MedicineTask Group 43U1 (AAPM TG-43U1) recommendations for their clinical applications.
Materials and methods. MCNP-4C and MCNPX Monte Carlo codes were utilized to calculate dose rate constant, two dimensional (2D) dose distribution, radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function of the source. These parameters of this source are compared with the available data for Ralstron 60Co and microSelectron192Ir sources. Besides, a superimposition method was developed to extend the obtained results for the GZP6 source No. 3 to other GZP6 sources.
Results. The simulated value for dose rate constant for GZP6 source was 1.104±0.03 cGyh-1U-1. The graphical and tabulated radial dose function and 2D anisotropy function of this source are presented here. The results of these investigations show that the dosimetric parameters of GZP6 source are comparable to those for the Ralstron source. While dose rate constant for the two 60Co sources are similar to that for the microSelectron192Ir source, there are differences between radial dose function and anisotropy functions. Radial dose function of the 192Ir source is less steep than both 60Co source models. In addition, the 60Co sources are showing more isotropic dose distribution than the 192Ir source.
Conclusions. The superimposition method is applicable to produce dose distributions for other source arrangements from the dose distribution of a single source. The calculated dosimetric quantities of this new source can be introduced as input data to the GZP6 treatment planning system (TPS) and to validate the performance of the TPS.
Anthemis L. is a genus of aromatic flowering plants in the family Asteraceae and is native to Iran. In this research, 62 accessions of four chamomile species including Anthemis tinctoria, A. triumfetti, A. haussknechtii and A. pseudocotula were evaluated for morphological traits. Four experiments were conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland, Tehran, Iran in 2011. Data were collected for the morphological traits for all of the species and essential oil content for A. triumfetti and A. pseudocotula. The results showed that plant height was positively correlated with canopy area for all of the species except A. triumfetti (p < 0.01). There were positive correlations between flower number with plant height and canopy area in both A. tinctoria and A. haussknechtii (p < 0.01). Fresh and dry weight were positively correlated with canopy area and plant height in all of the species (p < 0.01), except A. tinctoria for canopy area and A. triumfetti for plant height. GDD had a positive correlation with canopy area for A. triumfetti (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between essential oil yield and plant height, fresh and dry weight in A. triumfetti and A. pseudocotula (p < 0.05). Using cluster analysis (Ward method), the accessions of A. triumfetti, A. tinctoria, A. haussknechtii and A. pseudocotula were grouped into 3, 2, 4 and 2 clusters, respectively. The results of cluster analysis separated the accession based on shoot yield, morphological traits and maturity. In some items, the accessions within each cluster were coordinated with their geographical provenance.
The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs) in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α < 0.05) associated with the U-test showed signifi cant differences between medians in leukaemia patients and controls groups for Pb (lymphatic/control, acute/control), Cu (lymphatic/control, chronic/control), Ni (lymphatic/control, chronic/control) and Fe (chronic/control). Very strong positive and negative correlations (r > 0.70) in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA). The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.
Background: With significant increase in incidence of fungal infections in burn victims, determination of pattern of fungal infections and colonization is required to allow medical staff to begin proper empirical antibiotic therapy in early stages of septic episodes.
Objective: To determine the current infection profile (especially fungal profile) of burn wounds in a level I burn care center in Tehran.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2008 to September 2009 on burn wound patients admitted in Shahid Motahari Burn Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Wound swab cultures and tissue specimens from 869 patients (634 male and 235 female) out 4083 were taken and cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. The fungal organisms were then identified with macroscopic and microscopic structures.
Results: The incidence of fungal infection (not colonization) among the patients of this study was 13%. Candida albicans was identified as the dominant fungal agent (45%) followed by Aspergillus fumigatus (35%), Penicillium (8%), Aspergillus niger (5%), and other fungal organisms (7%).
Conclusion: With such high mortality rate and an increasing incidence of fungal wound infections, fungal infections should be a top infectious complication of burn patients and should be managed immediately and aggressively.
Due to the fact that dams are considered one of the strategic infrastructures of a country, it is very important to protect it against destructive acts. Accordingly, sensors were used at various points to record structural responses to the dam. Based on the questionnaires completed by experts, accuracy had the score of 3.8 so it was considered as the most important feature of the sensors and the optical fiber sensor with a mean score of 3.93 was selected as the best sensor type among the available ones. For this project, a questionnaire was prepared based on Likert scale and SPSS method was used in TOPSIS software. Then, Seimare concrete double curvature arch dam was simulated in ABAQUS 2017 software and the proper positioning of the sensors for optimum performance was determined based on Finite Element Method analysis and according to structural control criteria such as tension, displacement, strain, velocity and so one.
After having revised the change schedule for organic vapour respirator cartridges in a paint plant in Iran, we established that it did not provide adequate protection against organic vapours at some workplaces and needed shortening from (48 to 72) h to 4 h. The revision also showed that relying on odour thresholds as the primary means to determine the time to change a chemical cartridge was not effective and that the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) MultiVapor service life software program could be applied to develop cartridge change schedules adjusted to specific workplaces.
Statins are potent cholesterol-lowering drugs that can have serious adverse effects on the muscles and liver. The aim of our in vitro study was to establish the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, in its optimal dose of 200 μmol L-1) against cytotoxicity induced by atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin in isolated rat hepatocytes by observing parameters such as cell death, reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular reduced and oxidised glutathione content. Our findings have shown that pretreatment with CoQ10 was effective in reducing the toxic effects of statins in rat hepatocytes. This work demonstrates that the addition of CoQ10 to statin treatment regimens may protect hepatocytes (and also other types of cells) from statin-induced injuries and alleviate their side effects.
Allergens from Fusarium solani Identified by Immunoblotting in Asthma Patients In Iran
We extracted Fusarium solani antigens to evaluate specific anti-F. solani IgE in fifty-one patients with asthma (33 men and 18 women) and in 22 non-atopic healthy subjects (15 men and 7 women). F. solani strains were cultured in Sabouraud glucose agar and subjected to cell disruption using the freeze-and-thaw method. The obtained cytoplasmic extracts were analysed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Sensitisation to F. solani antigens has been evaluated in asthmatic patients using the immunoblotting assay. The SDS-PAGE identified 29 protein bands in the cytoplasmic extracts of F. solani isolates, with molecular weights ranging from 24 kDa to 112 kDa. Immunoblotting detected specific anti-F. solani IgE antibody in all asthma patients, but not in the control group. The predominant reactive allergens in patients corresponded to the bands with molecular weights of 24 kDa, 58.5 kDa, 64.5 kDa, 69 kDa, 72 kDa, and 97 kDa. Our results suggest that various allergenic components of F. solani may produce symptoms of asthma in susceptible individuals and they call for further research.
Liquisolid technique as a tool for enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs and evaluation of their physicochemical properties
The potential of liquisolid systems to improve the dissolution properties of a water-insoluble agent (indomethacin) was investigated. In this study, different formulations of liquisolid tablets using different co-solvents (non-volatile solvents) were prepared and the effect of aging on the dissolution behaviour of indomethacin liquisolid compacts was investigated. To evaluate any interaction between indomethacin and the other components in liquisolid formulations, X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used. Dissolution test was carried out at two different pH, 1.2 and 7.2, to simulate the stomach or intestine fluid, respectively. The results showed that liquisolid formulations exhibited significantly higher drug dissolution rates at pH 1.2 and 7.2 compared to compacts prepared by the direct compression technique. The enhanced rate of indomethacin dissolution from liquisolid tablets was probably due to an increase in wetting properties and surface area of drug particles available for dissolution. In order to investigate the effect of aging on the hardness and dissolution rate of liquisolid compacts, the formulations were stored at 25 °C/75% relative humidity for a period of 12 months. The results showed that aging had no significant effect on dissolution profiles of liquisolid tablets. Liquisolid compacts containing propylene glycol as vehicle produced higher dissolution rates in comparison with liquisolid compacts containing PEG 400 or Tween 80 of the same concentration. The DSC and XPD results showed no changes in crystallinity of the drug and interaction between indomethacin and excipients (Avicel and silica) during the process.