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  • Author: Mohamed Mustafa x
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Thomas Sajeev, Mohamed Mustafa and Sanjay Supe

Dosimetrical evaluation of Leksell Gamma Knife 4C radiosurgery unit

A number of experiments was performed using standard protocols, in order to evaluate the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife 4C unit. Verification of the beam alignment has been performed for all collimators using solid plastic head phantom and Gafchromic™ type MD-55 films. The study showed a good agreement of Leksell Gammaplan calculated dose profiles with experimentally determined profiles in all three axes. Isocentric accuracy is verified using a specially machined cylindrical aluminium film holder tool made with very narrow geometric tolerances aligned between trunnions of 4 mm collimator. Considering all uncertainties in all three dimensions, the estimated accuracy of the unit was 0.1 mm. Dose rate at the centre point of the unit has been determined according to the IAEA, TRS-398 protocol, using Unidose-E (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) with a 0.125 cc ion chamber, over a period of 6 years. The study showed that the Leksell Gamma Knife 4C unit is excellent radiosurgical equipment with high accuracy and precision, which makes it possible to deliver larger doses of radiation, within the limits defined by national and international guidelines, applicable for stereotactic radiosurgery procedures.

Open access

Adel Mandour, Eslam El-Sawy, Kamel Shaker and Mohamed Mustafa

Synthesis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities of 1,8-dihydro-1-ary1-8-alkyl pyrazolo(3,4-b)indoles

A series of 1,8-dihydro-1-aryl-8-alkyl pyrazolo(3,4-b)indoles 4a-j, 5a-j and 6a-j has been synthesized and tested for their anti-inflammatory and anticonvulsant activities. Formation of the pyrazoloindole derivatives was achieved by treating arylhydrazones of N-alkyl indole-3-carbox-aldehydes 1a-j, 2a-j and 3a-j with ten times their mass of polyphosphoric acid as a condensing agent. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities compared to indomethacin, flufenamic acid and diazepam as positive controls. Detailed synthesis, spectroscopic and toxicity data are reported.

Open access

Mohamed A. Ashour, M. Sherif Saad and Mustafa M. Kotb


Bahr Youssef (B.Y) is a semi-natural branch canal connecting the River Nile with Fayoum depression, in the desert immediately to the west of the Nile Valley, about 92 kilometers southwest of Cairo, for irrigation purposes of El-Minya, El-Fayoum, Bani-Swif, and Giza governorates. The area served by Bahr Youssef reaches about 850.000 feds in the Middle Egypt, out of 1.650.000 feds served by the Ibrahimeya carrier canal, which branches from the River Nile's at Assiut barrage, and extends northward for 55 kilometers, until Dayrut city. In Dayrut; “Ibrahimeya” canal bifurcates into seven carrier canals, (Bahr Youssef is one of them,) through Dayrut Group of regulators. Bahr Youssef suffers from, meandering phenomenon, in many reaches, occurred with all its harmful and destructive effects. As meanders are the direct result of erosion-deposition processes occur in such flatty reaches with hydraulically unstable sections, our effort here is directed for studying the existing geometric, and hydraulic conditions of some representative reaches of Bahr Youssef, to evaluate the size of the problem through intensive field measurements, and to verify the available predicting techniques and theories by comparison with the obtained measured values. Introducing an acceptable, effective and easy method, which can be used for an accurate estimation of the meandering phenomenon, is the main objective of this study. This was achieved through reviewing and assessment of the available predicting techniques, and evaluating their liability, validity, and suitability through the comparison with the field collected measurements.