Abdellah Ali, Phalisteen Sultan, Mohamed El-Napoli and Mohamed Fahmy
Lipoprotein Metabolism Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) on hemodialysis develop lipoprotein abnormalities that may contribute to increased risk for atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to assess the atherogenic risk of chronic renal insufficiency patients and dialysis treated patients (DTP) by measuring total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and calculating the risk factor ratio: TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C. The examined group consisted of 18 chronic renal insufficiency patients and 60 patients on hemodialysis. The results were compared to a control group of 85 voluntary blood donors. Serum lipid parameters were examined by standard methods. All lipid parameters in hemodialysis patients were statistically different as compared to the control group (p<0.05) while chronic renal insufficiency patients showed significant difference only in triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Hypertriglyceridemia was present in both examined groups of patients and HDL-cholesterol was lower within both groups. All calculated atherogenic ratios were higher for patients than the control group. Lipid parameters were compared between chronic renal insufficiency and hemodialysis patients, but statistically significant difference was obtained only for HDL-cholesterol (p<0.05). The increased values of triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol in chronic renal insufficiency patients contribute to high incidence of cardiovascular disease. Chronic renal insufficiency patients have impaired reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells to lipoproteins, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia prevalence of small, dense LDL and increased levels of potentially atherogenic remnant particles.
Mohamed O. M. Omar, Adhm M. Moustafa, Mohammad J. Ansari, Abdelsalam M. Anwar, Bassam F. Fahmy, Ahmad Al-Ghamdi and Adgaba Nuru
The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial strains associated with the gut of the hybrid Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, and to determine their in vitro and in vivo potential against Ascosphaera apis, the causal organism of chalkbrood disease, with the purpose of exploring feasible biological control. Six bacterial strains were isolated from healthy worker honey bees by culture-dependent methods. Six fungal strains (A3, A4, A7, A8, A9, and A15) of A. apis were isolated from larvae suffering from chalkbrood disease on Yeast-Glucose-Starch agar (YGPSA) medium. All bacteria were identified by a combination of morphology, Gram stain, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, and fungal strains were identified by morphology and 5.8S rRNA. In vitro and in vivo inhibition assays were carried out to determine the ability of bacterial isolates to inhibit A. apis, the causal agent of chalkbrood disease. The analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that four bacterial strains (B2, B4, B10, and B100) belong to Bacillus subtilis species, and two strains (P1 and P5) belong to Pseudomonas fluorescence. Significant differences in antagonistic activity of all bacterial strains were observed. B. subtilis isolate B2 showed the highest antagonistic activity, as measured by the inhibition zone against A. apis, followed by the P1 strain of P. fluorescence. SEM analysis also supports the antagonistic activity of these bacteria against A. apis. This study provides a theoretical basis for biological control of honey bee chalkbrood disease.