The objective of the present study was the optimization of the parameters affecting the hydrodistillation of Ruta chalepensis L. essential oil using response surface design type Box-Behnken. After an appropriate choice of three parameters, 15 experiments were performed leading to a mathematical second-degree model relating the response function (yield of essential oil) to parameters and allowing a good control of the extraction process. The realization of the experiments and data analysis was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). A deduced second-order polynomial expression was used to determine the optimal conditions necessary to obtain a better essential oil yield. These optimized operating conditions were: a granulometry of 2 mm, a condensation-water flow rate of 3.4 mL/min and an extraction time of 204 min. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates that the generated second-order polynomial model was highly significant with R2=0.9589 and P<0.006. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of essential oil extracted from the Ruta chalepensis L. aerial parts revealed the presence of 2-undecanone, 2-nonanone and 2-decanone as major components.
The aerial parts of Tamarix gallica L. taken from three different climatic stages in Algeria (Oum El Bouaghi: Semi-arid, ElTaref: Humid, and Ouargla: Arid) were extracted using boiling distilled water. The crude extracts were subjected to total phenolics and flavonoids quantifications in addition to anti-proliferative assessment against two tumor cell lines namely rat brain tumor (C6) and human cervix carcinoma (HeLa) using BrdU (bromo-deoxyuridine) ELISA(Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay) and xCELLigence assay. The total phenolics yield was found to range between 16.14 and 39.32 mg GAE (Gallic acid equivalent)/g of extract and a flavonoids yield ranging between 16.51 and 20.35 mg QE(quercetin equivalent)/g of extract. The various phenolics were identified using HPLC-TOF/MS to highlight hesperidin and rosmarinic Acid as major components. Moreover, the extracts exhibited different levels of antitumor potency against C6 and HeLa cell lines depending upon the climatic stage and the concentration. A good cytotoxic effect was recorded with the species collected from the humid region at 250 μg/mL. On the contrary, the other extracts revealed a weak activity for both tests.