The Chinese Social Credit System (SCS), known as the first national digitally-implemented credit rating system, consists of two parallel arms: a government-run and a commercial one. The government-run arm of the SCS, especially efforts to blacklist and redlist individuals and organizations, has attracted significant attention worldwide. In contrast, the commercial part has been less often in the public spotlight except for discussions about Zhima Credit.
The commercial arm of the SCS, also referred to as the Consumer Credit Reporting System (CCRS), has been under development for about two decades and took a major step forward in 2015 when 8 companies were granted permission to implement pilot consumer credit reporting programs. This development fundamentally increased the reach and impact of the SCS due to these companies’ sizable customer base and access to vast troves of consumer-related information.
In this paper, we first map the Chinese CCRS to understand the actors in the credit reporting ecosystem. Then, we study 13 consumer credit reporting companies to examine how they collect and use personal information. Based on the findings, we discuss the relationship between the CCRS and the SCS including the changes in the power relationships between the government, consumer credit reporting companies and Chinese citizens.
The performance of a new anion exchanger prepared from raw cassava straw (RCS), for the removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions was evaluated in this study. The cassava straw was modified by epichlorohydrin in the presence of pyridine. The influencing factors, adsorption kinetics, and thermodynamics model of nitrate adsorption onto the modified cassava straw (MCS) were studied. The results showed that the zeta potentials of RCS and MCS were -20.5 mV and +37.3 mV, nitrogen contents (N %) of RCS and MCS were 0.43 and 4.96%, respectively. The best nitrate removal results was reached at 0.2 g of adsorbent dosage and pH range of 6.0÷12.0. The modified cassava straw adsorbed nitrate(V) quickly, reaching equilibrium within 30 minutes. The kinetics of nitrate adsorption at different initial concentrations (25, 50 and 75 mg/dm3) all fit a second order reaction. The adsorption rates were controlled by both membrane diffusion and intra-particle diffusion. The adsorption data fit the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity was 2.14, 2.00 and 1.81 mmol/dm3 at 293, 303, and 313 K, respectively.
The simplified metrological software test (MST) for modeling the method of determining the thermocouple (TC) error in situ during operation is considered in the paper. The interaction between the proposed MST and a temperature measuring system is also reflected in order to study the error of determining the TC error in situ during operation. The modelling studies of the random error influence of the temperature measuring system, as well as interference magnitude (both the common and normal mode noises) on the error of determining the TC error in situ during operation using the proposed MST, have been carried out. The noise and interference of the order of 5-6 μV cause the error of about 0.2-0.3°C. It is shown that high noise immunity is essential for accurate temperature measurements using TCs.