The aim of this study is to use material flow cost accounting (MFCA) to assess the level
at which cleaner production (CP) can improve both environmental and economic performance of an organization.
Higher energy and raw material prices are causing CP to grow in relevance and importance.
The amount of waste to landfill is increasing steadily. Most companies are using inefficient processes
and technologies that are obsolete resulting in higher production costs, which, in turn, affect their profitability
and competitiveness. This study was a case study based on a paper manufacturing company using
an exploratory qualitative and quantitative research methodology. The MFCA approach was used
to assess the efficiency of the steam production process using coal-fired boilers. The results indicated
that the process was inefficient resulting in significant negative environmental and economic impact.
Environmental costs were hugely underestimated by management, as non-product output costs were not
included as part of environmental costs calculated by company. Benefits and barriers to CP was also
brought to the forefront at the conclusion of this research.
Environmental Management Accounting (EMA) is a broader concept of accounting which uses accounting tools and practices to support company-internal management decision making on environmental issues and its impact on company performance. Research on EMA can be divided into two broad categories: theoretical and empirical studies. The theoretical studies based on framework that aim to explain the nature of the relationship between economic and environmental performance and the adoption of Environmental Management Accounting in a business environment. The empirical studies follow two lines of research, instrumental studies aim to empirically test the relationships hypothesized in theoretical studies; descriptive studies are intended to examine the factors that encourage the adoption of EMA. This review paper examined the role of MFCA in identifying non-product output (waste) and its impact on an organisations profitability. Various case studies are examined in this article that demonstrates MFCA to an important environmental management tool to ensure future sustainability of an organisation.
The aim of this article is to provide reader with a comprehensive insight on the theories, empirical findings and models of Product Portfolio Management (PPM) during new product development. This article will allow for an in-depth theoretical approach on PPM and demonstrate to managers the importance of adopting PPM as business strategy during decision making. The objective of this paper is to present a literature review of models, theories, approaches and findings on the relationship between Product Portfolio Management and new product development. Relevant statistical trends, historical developments, published opinion of major writers in this field will be presented to provide concrete evidence of the problem being discussed.
The aim of this article to provide a theoretical framework on the concepts of Sustainable Development and the process that companies need to follow in order to ensure the future sustainability of business operations. Various secondary sources and previous literature was reviewed to clearly identify why companies are finding it difficult to conduct their business operations in a sustainable manner. Stricter legislation and regulations, increased competition, depletion of natural resources and market pressures have placed organisations under increased pressure to improve environmental performance and achieve eco-efficiency. This paper provides comprehensive overview of how companies can achieve the ‘Triple bottom line’ by committing to continuous improvement and adhering to the regulations stipulated according to the International Standards of Organisations (ISO14001).
The survival of any industrial organization depends on whether producing goods or services hinge on how innovative they have become in managing their product portfolio to craft new products that changes with the ever-changing tastes and needs of their customers. This study delves in to the models and theories that drive product portfolio management practices in a way that they support the successes of new product development. Our review is based on selected studies at the frontier of product management, summarized, and compared based on authors experiences, subsisting models, and theories with the results purely based on qualitative rather than quantitative approaches. The essence is to explore possible new theory or model in this field of research.
The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the perception of management on the benefits of adopting an environmental management accounting (EMA) system as a waste management tool in a paper and pulp manufacturing company. This paper highlights the benefits of an EMA system and the role and importance of EMA as a decision-making tool in encouraging the adoption of cleaner production (CP) techniques and technologies. This research was based on a case study of a paper and pulp manufacturing company in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Data collection instruments for the study included a Likert-type questionnaire and interviews with the environmental manager and cost accountant but the findings reported in this paper are based on the empirical evidence gathered from the questionnaire which identified that there was positive correlation between environmental performance and CP techniques and technologies. Environmental costs were hidden under general overheads and understated because the company was using a conventional costing system and not an EMA system; hence, environmental costs were not traced back to the products or processes responsible for those costs. It was evident from the qualitative data analysis that management regarded their environmental costs as too insignificant to justify implementation of an EMA system. The consequent reluctance of the company to adopt CP resulted in poor waste management and lower-quality environmental performance.
The current environmental challenges caused by the dependence on nonrenewable energy, increased waste disposal, the toxic emissions created by operational activities, and also the scarce supply of water are so complex and important that it requires immediate attention. Strict environmental legislation, market pressures, and urgent need for sustainability have given businesses no option but to ensure that they do all that is possible to ensure that their business operations are sustainable. This paper addresses the underlying factors that determine the extent to which organizations adopt sustainable business practices and cleaner production techniques and technologies. It had been concluded that ethics is linked to sustainable business practices, because the objectives of both these concepts are to think about doing what’s right for others and the world, including the environment. According to the organizational corporate compliance regulations, a company’s commitment to ethical business and sustainable business practices should be detailed in their policy handbook and communicated to all employees within the company (Sustainability Report 2013/2014).