The service life of bridges is significantly affected by fatigue of used material induced by heavy vehicles. Therefore, precise determination of the vehicle weight is of crucial importance for the calculation of fatigue damage and the prediction of the bridge serviceability. This paper investigates accuracy of the determination of fatigue depending on the length of traffic flow recording. The presented data were obtained from the measurements carried out on a bridge of the Prague Highway Ring. The analysis reveals that the optimal length of traffic recording is about 30 days.
The paper is focused on the model uncertainty related to shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams without special shear reinforcement considering available test results. Variation of the model uncertainty with basic variables is analysed and significant variables are identified for the section-oriented formula provided in EN 1992-1-1. Proposed probabilistic description of the model uncertainty consists of the lognormal distribution having the coefficient of variation of 0.15 and the mean value varying from 0.9 to 1.05 for beams with light to heavy longitudinal reinforcement.
Parameter estimation uncertainty is often neglected in reliability studies, i.e. point estimates of distribution parameters are used for representative fractiles, and in probabilistic models. A numerical example examines the effect of this uncertainty on structural reliability using Bayesian statistics. The study reveals that the neglect of parameter estimation uncertainty might lead to an order of magnitude underestimation of failure probability.
Resistance of steel structures is primarily dependent on material properties, geometry and uncertainties related to an applied model. While materials and geometry can be relatively well described, the uncertainties in resistance models are not yet well understood. In many cases significant efforts are spent to improve resistance models and reduce uncertainty associated with outcomes of the model. However, these achievements are then inadequately reflected in the values of partial factors. That is why the present paper clarifies a model uncertainty and its quantification. Initially a general concept of the model uncertainty is proposed. Influences affecting results obtained by tests and models and influences of actual structural conditions are overviewed. Statistical characteristics of the uncertainties in resistance of steel members are then provided. Simple engineering formulas, mostly based on the EN 1993-1-1 models, are taken into account. To facilitate practical applications, the partial factors for the model uncertainties are derived using a semiprobabilistic approach.
This paper is focused on the reliability analysis of an existing reinforced concrete bridge from 1908. The load bearing capacity is assessed in accordance with valid standards using updated partial factors and the partial factors for structural design. Load bearing capacities obtained by these methods are critically compared. The application of the updated partial factors leads to 15% higher load bearing capacity than the ordinary partial factor method used for structural design.
The contribution is focused on reliability of balcony girders of a Czech national heritage monument. As preliminary reliability assessment suggests insufficient resistance, a series of nondestructive tests supplemented by a single tensile test are performed and evaluated by the statistical methods. Values of material properties, recommended in standards for historic materials, seem to be overly conservative and it is advised to specify properties of historic metallic materials by tests.
The contribution is focused on quantifying model uncertainty of crack width estimates for reinforced concrete beams. Predictions obtained by the model provided by the fib Model Code 2010 are compared with results of tests of beams having different longitudinal and shear reinforcement ratios and concrete cover. Trends of model uncertainty with basic variables are investigated.
The paper is focused on the deterioration of industrial reinforced concrete chimneys caused by carbonation. It is considered that a chimney has to be repaired when more than 30% of its surface is affected by visible corrosion-induced cracks. An optimal maintenance strategy aims at the postponement of this state beyond the intended service life of the chimney with minimum maintenance costs.
Dimitris Diamantidis, Milan Holický and Miroslav Sýkora
The specification of risk and reliability acceptance criteria is a key issue of reliability verifications of new and existing structures. Current target reliability levels in standards appear to have considerable scatter. Critical review of risk acceptance approaches to societal, economic and environmental risk indicates that an optimal design strategy is mostly dominated by economic aspects while human safety aspects need to be verified only in special cases. It is recommended to specify the target levels considering economic optimisation and the marginal life-saving costs principle, as both these approaches take into account the failure consequences and costs of safety measures.
Assessment of existing structures should be based on the knowledge about as-built conditions including uncertainties concerning geometry, material properties, loading and environmental conditions. A crucial step of the assessment may be the evaluation of prior information and newly obtained measurements for which Bayesian approach provides a consistent framework. Updating of probabilistic distributions of basic variables, direct updating of failure probability and combination thereof can be applied.