Soybean meal is one of the fodder components. It is a by-product of the production of soybean oil. Soybean meal is a specific cargo due to changes that may occur in it during transport processes. These changes are subject to many distinguishing features of usable quality inter alia fat and fatty acid content. The temperature and size of the soybean meal particles are among the factors influencing the transformations. The article presents the results of research on soybean meal and its individual fractions and the impact of selected indicators on the quality changes of this cargo. The results depend on the conditions corresponding to those that occur during the storage, handling and transport processes. The dependencies between them have been determined. The performed research allowed to determine the type and scope of changes taking place in this cargo under the influence of temperature. The results of the study showed that as the temperature rises, the fatty acid content in the soybean meal decreased during storage for a given period of 30 days.
The influence of external factors on changes in the soybean meal quality features has an important meaning in the emergence of hazards during the transport processes of this cargo. Soybean meal is one of the most frequently used components of fodder mixtures. Due to its inherent properties, it is classified as special cargoes. Maintaining the quality of soybean meal during transport processes depends on storage, handling and transport conditions. The main external factor included in the study was humidity. Transport-technological quality features were distinguished: kinetic angle of repose, size of particles, bulk density, porosity. The article presents the results of research on soybean meal and its separated fractions. There was presented humidity influence on changes in significant features for this cargo. Type and range of changes in the distinguishing features of soybean meal were determined in the given stages of the transport chain under the influence of humidity. The risk was assessed in the transport processes of soybean meal. A correlation was determined between changes of individual features and water content in soybean meal changing as a result of air humidity. It was found that humidity of the ambient air in which transport processes occur and size of grain particles of soybean meal have a significant impact on changes in transport-technological quality features.
This article concerns safety during ship docking operations. It presents its specificity for this type of operation, describes selected problems that may occur during its operation and identifies the main factors initiating extraordinary situations. The article presents 4 examples of accidents during docking operations in recent years. Cause and effect analysis was carried out and presented graphically. This analysis illustrated the occurring errors in the safety system during the docking operation.
In this article the strength analyses of weights boxes are presented. Boxes are designed as a welded steel structure at which weights with total mass almost ten tons are stored in them. These boxes are an integral part of a mechanism intended for calibration of the mass measurement device. The article contains on one hand the basic scope of the theory of elasticity and strength analysis and on the other hand the numerical computations of the structure by using the Finite Element Method. Based on results the structure of weights boxes was modified in order to satisfy the defined safety factor.
This article is focused on the stress analyses of the welded structure of the device designed to the scales calibrating with maximum loading capacity up to ten tons. The article includes basic knowledges of the theory of elasticity and stress analysis and numerical method called Finite Element Method that were used for the task solution. Cores of the work were stress analyses of selected parts of the designed structure of the device. For stress analyses the ADINA numerical software was used. Results of analyses of the primary design device showed that strength in same locations did not respond to the required maximal load. The structure in critical locations was modified and subsequently reanalyses confirmed the sufficient strength with prescribed safety factor.
Passenger ride comfort of road vehicles is one of the most important performances of vehicle. The research of automotive passenger ride comfort is getting more and more important. In this contribution, the multibody model of a three-wheeled vehicle and analyses of passenger ride comfort is presented. The vehicle model and dynamic analyses were performed using the Simpack software package. The dynamic analyses of the vehicle driving were carried out on the road model with different surface quality. Analyses were focused on assessment of the passenger ride comfort on a driver seat.
This article deals with computer analyses of output quantities of a railway vehicle depending on changing of parameters of suspension system. A passenger car was chosen for dynamic analyses. An analysed passenger railway vehicle uses two stage suspension system composed of coil springs and hydraulic dampers. Stiffness of coil springs of primary and secondary suspensions were defined for two states and its influence on output values in terms of quality and quantity was evaluated. As output variables, values of forces in a wheel/rail contact and accelerations in several locations on a wagon body floor were chosen. Values of forces in a wheel/rail contact indicate dynamic response of a railway vehicle running in terms of running safety and values of accelerations serve as important input for evaluation of passenger ride comfort.
The railway transport network is currently in a quite big expansion. Therefore, railway tracks are modernized and the attention is given also on the technical state of rail vehicles, which operate on them. However, it may happen that the wheel surface is damaged. One of the most common reasons of wheel damage is too much braking, which results to the wheel-flat formation. This article is focused on the evaluation of the influence of a rail vehicle running on the railway track, which a wheel is damaged by the wheel-flat. Investigation of these negative effects was performed by means of simulation computations. As evaluating parameters, values of the wheel force in the contact of the rail and wheel with a flat where observed.
The ride comfort for passenger represents an important aspect of a rail vehicle dynamic analysing. The computational software utilisation helps to determine forces and accelerations in various positions through the body of a rail vehicle in order to predict ride properties or evaluate ideas for ride comfort in advance. This article is focused on the dynamic simulation of a rail vehicle running on a real track section. The rail vehicle model creation, computations performance and determination of accelerations badly needed for the ride comfort evaluation is performed in commercial software package.