This paper presents a 2D density model along a transect from NW to SE China. The model was first constructed by the transformation of seismic velocity to density, revealed by previous deep seismic soundings (DSS) investigations in China. Then, the 2D density model was updated using the GM-SYS software by fitting the computed to the observed gravity data. Based on the density distribution of anomalous layers we divided the Chinese continental crust along the transect into three regions: north-western, central and south-eastern. The first one includes the Junggar Basin, Tianshan and Tarim Basin. The second part consists of the Qilian Orogen, the Qaidam Basin and the Songpan Ganzi Basin. The third region is represented by the Yangtze and the Cathaysia blocks. The low velocity body (vp =5.2 – 6.2 km/s) at the junction of the North-western and Central parts at a depth between 21 – 31 km, which was discovered out by DSS, was also confirmed by our 2D density modelling.
The main aim of this study is to compile 2-D density model of the CELEBRATION 2000 profile CEL12, which is based on seismic refraction data. The profile CEL12 crosses the External Western Carpathians Flysch zone and is located in the southern part of Poland. The general feature of the resultant density model shows significant changes in the crustal thickness. The Moho depth changes in the interval from 31 km to 43 km. The interpreted 43 km crustal thickness over a 60 km section of the profile results in the discovery of an area, which represents the thickest crust in the entire West Carpathians. This area is situated ~50 km north-east from the High Tatras in Poland.
The international seismic project CELEBRATION 2000 brought very good information about the P-wave velocity distribution in the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin litosphere. In this paper seismic data were used for transformations of in situ P-wave velocities to in situ densities along all profiles running across the Western Carpathians and the Pannonian Basin: CEL01, CEL04, CEL05, CEL06, CEL09, CEL11 and CEL12. The calculation of rock densities in the crust and lower lithosphere was done by the transformation of seismic velocities to densities using the formulae of Sobolev-Babeyko, Christensen-Mooney and in the lower lithosphere also by Lachenbruch-Morgan’s formula. The density of the upper crust changes significantly in the vertical and horizontal directions, while the interval ranges of the calculated lower crust densities narrow down prominently. The lower lithosphere is the most homogeneous - the intervals of the calculated densities for this layer are already very narrow. The average density of the upper crust (ρ̅ = 2.60 g · cm−3) is the lowest in the Carpathian Foredeep region. On the contrary, the highest density of this layer (ρ̅ = 2.77 g · cm−3) is located in the Bohemian Massif. The average densities ρ̅ of the lower crust vary between 2.90 and 2.98 g · cm−3. The Palaeozoic Platform and the East European Craton have the highest density (ρ̅ = 2.98 g · cm−3 and ρ̅ = 2.97 g · cm−3, respectively). The lower crust density is the lowest (ρ̅ = 2.90 g · cm−3) in the Pannonian Basin. The range of calculated average densities ρ̅ for the lower lithosphere is changed in the interval from 3.35 to 3.40 g · cm−3. The heaviest lower lithosphere can be observed in the East European Craton (ρ̅ = 3.40 g · cm−3). The lower lithosphere of the Transdanubian Range and the Palaeozoic Platform is characterized by the lowest density ρ̅ = 3.35 g · cm−3.
Results of the gravity field interpretation in the Turčianska Kotlina Basin
The paper deals with the quantitative interpretation of the gravity field in the Turčianska Kotlina Basin. The interpretation was done by means of the application of the 2D density modelling method using the GM-SYS software. Geophysical constraints of the density models are represented by the existing geophysical measurements and interpretations. The Turčianska Kotlina Basin in the picture of the regional gravity field is characterized by the local gravity low with amplitude of about 12 mGal. The source of this gravity low is low density Tertiary sediments, which fill the basin. From the Tertiary sediments the Neogene sediments play dominant role in observed gravity, because their gravity effects are considerably larger in comparison with the gravity effects of the Paleogene sediments. The contacts between the Malá Fatra and Veľká Fatra Mts., and the Turčianska Kotlina Basin are characterized by the significant gravity gradients. They reflect tectonic contact between the basin and crystalline core mountains. In the Turčianska gravity low we can see along the Profile TK-AL three local gravity lows. The highest local gravity low is explained by the largest thickness of the Tertiary sediments. Another two local gravity lows are also characterised by thicker layers of the Tertiary sediments. Density models assume that the eastern (western) part of the basin basement is built by the Mesozoic (crystalline) rocks. In the central part of the Profile TK-BL the thick Paleogene sedimentary filling (more than 1 km) compensates the deepest part of the Pretertiary basement. Density model along the Profile TK-BL does not suggest a presence of the Paleogene sediments in the basin filling. It is also indicated that the Mesozoic rocks underlie the Tertiary sediments. The Pretertiary basement was interpreted in the depths from 0 km up to the 2 km. Note that all geological structures (blocks) are sliding from the East to the West. The dipping of the Malá Fatra Mts. is steeper than in a case of the Veľká Fatra Mts. The anomalous bodies observed on the western part of the basin result from the alluvial and detrital cones. Their presence and gravity effect can be observed mainly on the eastern slope of the Malá Fatra Mts.
Robustness analysis in forward modelling gravity data in crustal/lithospheric studies
The robustness of the gravimetric forward modelling is investigated by applying the harmonic inversion procedure at the input which is the difference of the calculated and measured surface gravity. The gravity data are taken from two profiles in the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region. The result of the inversion are density models obtained from the original two-layer models with various horizontal boundary depth and density contrast. The deformation of the originally planar boundary is the measure of the mismatch between calculated and measured data. The calculated deformation has reached up to tens of kilometers and thus the uncertainties in determining the geometry of disturbing bodies by the forward modelling are substantial.
Using a very fast 1D method of integrated geophysical modelling, we calculated models of the Moho discontinuity and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region and its surrounding tectonic units. This method is capable to constrain complicated lithospheric structures by using joint interpretation of different geophysical data sets (geoid and topography) at the same time. The Moho depth map shows significant crustal thickness variations. The thickest crust is found underneath the Carpathian arc and its immediate Foredeep. High values are found in the Eastern Carpathians and Vrancea area (44 km). The thickest crust modelled in the Southern Carpathians is 42 km. The Dinarides crust is characterized by thicknesses more than 40 km. In the East European Platform, crust has a thickness of about 34 km. In the Apuseni Mountains, the depth of the Moho is about 36 km. The Pannonian Basin and the Moesian Platform have thinner crust than the surrounding areas. Here the crustal thicknesses are less than 30 km on average. The thinnest crust can be found in the SE part of the Pannonian Basin near the contact with the Southern Carpathians where it is only 26 km. The thickest lithosphere is placed in the East European Platform, Eastern Carpathians and Southern Carpathians. The East European Platform lithosphere thickness is on average more than 120 km. A strip of thicker lithosphere follows the Eastern Carpathians and its Foredeep, where the values reach in average 160 km. A lithosphere thickness minimum can be observed at the southern border of the Southern Carpathians and in the SE part of the Pannonian Basin. Here, it is only 60 km. The extremely low values of lithospheric thickness in this area were not shown before. The Moesian Platform is characterized by an E-W trend of lithospheric thickness decrease. In the East, the thickness is about 110 km and in the west it is only 80 km. The Pannonian Basin lithospheric thickness ranges from 80 to 100 km.
The temperature model of the lithosphere along profile passing through the Red Sea region has been derived using 2D integrated geophysical modelling method. Using the extrapolation of failure criteria, lithology and calculated temperature distribution, we have constructed the rheological model of the lithosphere in the area. We have calculated the strength distribution in the lithosphere and constructed the strength envelopes for both compressional and extensional regimes. The obtained results indicate that the strength steadily decreases from the Western desert through the Eastern desert towards the Red Sea where it reaches its minimum for both compressional and extensional regime. Maximum strength can be observed in the Western desert where the largest strength reaches values of about 250–300 MPa within the upper crust on the boundary between upper and lower crust. In the Eastern desert we observe slightly decreased strength with max values about 200–250 MPa within upper crust within 15 km with compression being dominant. These results suggest mostly rigid deformation in the region or Western and Eastern desert. In the Red Sea, the strength rapidly decreases to its minimum suggesting ductile processes as a result of higher temperatures.
Linearization of the Sobolev and Babeyko's formulae for transformation of P-wave velocity to density in the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region
The initial density model has to be based on a reasonable geological hypothesis and while the modelling process is non-unique, one of the interpretation aims is to define the robust parameters of the model. It is important at this stage to integrate the seismic and gravity data. One of the possibilities how to integrate these data is transformation of the seismic velocities to densities. The Sobolev and Babeyko's formulae belong to the most available relationships for this transformation. They are very complex and rigorous taking into account the PT conditions. On the other hand its application is relatively complicated. Therefore the main goal of the paper is to try to determine more easily the formula for transformation of the seismic velocities to densities. Based on the analysis of the results obtained using the Sobolev and Babeyko's formula on real data, we found out that in the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region this formula can be transformed to simpler linear velocity-density relationship with required accuracy.
2D integrated modelling algorithm was used to calculate the temperature distribution in the lithosphere along the transect IV located in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin area. Based on the determined temperature field and given rheological parameters of the rocks, it was possible to calculate the strength distribution for both compressional and extensional regimes, construct the strength envelopes for chosen columns of the main tectonic units of the model, and thus construct a simple rheological model of the lithosphere along transect IV. The obtained results indicate decrease of the lithospheric strength from the European platform and the Western Carpathians towards the Pannonian Basin. The largest strength (valid for all tectonic units) can be observed within the upper crust with its maxima on the boundary between upper and lower crust, decreasing towards lower crust and disappearing in the lithospheric mantle, suggesting mostly rigid deformation occurring in the upper crust. A local increase in the values of strength can be observed in the eastern segment of the Western Carpathians where crustal thickening accompanies the lithospheric thickening (formation of the lithospheric root), unlike the previous models along transects I and II, that pass through the western segment of the Western Carpathians and their lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is almost flat and therefore no accompanying crustal thickening is observed and the decrease in strength is slow and steady.
Density modelling was carried out along five profiles oriented across the expected deep contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Internal Western Carpathians in western Slovakia. The density models reveal the continuation of the Bohemian Massif beneath the External and Internal Western Carpathians tectonic units. The eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif is situated at depth south-east of the surface outcrops of the Pieniny Klippen Belt and changes its position in the surveyed area. The contact of the Internal Western Carpathians with the Bohemian Massif and External Western Carpathians is subvertical. This sharp contact is manifested as the transtension to extension zone towards the surface.