Effectiveness of Removal of Humic Substances and Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachates During their Pretreatment Process in the SBR Reactor
In the paper the removal efficiency of heavy metals as well as humic compounds, in the treatment of leachate mixed with municipal waste in a sequencing batch reactor was studied. Also, the accumulation of those metals in the activated sludge was examined. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of contamination with humic compounds, for Bx ranging from 0.23 to 0.45 mg COD mg-1 d.m. can reach 71÷74%. An increase in the concentrations of heavy metals in the activated sludge was recorded for Bx in the range 0.23÷1.64 mg COD mg-1 d.m. The amount of heavy metals in the effluent of the SBR in carrying out the process at Bx = 0.23÷0.96 mg COD mg-1 d.m. does not limit their discharge into water and sewer system.
In this paper, the evolution of the style of Caravaggio had been traced and, focusing on the selected images it had been proved that the methods used by that eminent painter can successfully be applied during the creation of modern, effective multimedia presentations. The strength of Caravaggio was in its simplicity and mundane. For indicated formal measures may be included, inter alia: the elimination of tonally extended second plan and replace it with a dark, uniform background. Caravaggio calmed down composition painting almost monochromatic paintings, which emphasizes the foreground, as well as the keynote message. In the paper it was emphasized that exactly the same objectives should be guided in the creation of multimedia presentations, extracted from unnecessary embellishments that irrupt to the fore dispersing attention. Based on the analysis of selected paintings, in the article, review of procedures associated with the colors of multimedia presentations, extremely important in creating multimedia presentations and highlighting media had been proposed. Several theories related to the psychology of color had been also presented, and also sought to answer the question of why we should not trust psychologists boundlessly.
The paper presents the results of the spread of the tetrahydrothiophene (THT) - used as odourant - in the gas network. Such analyses allow quick detection of leaks in networks, systems and devices of gas supply directly to consumers. The main goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the use of portable chromatograph and comparing it with a stationary odourant concentration analyser. Based on these studies, an attempt to determine the odouration zone for the selected city have been also taken. For this purpose, three series of measurements were made - in each series 13 points were analysed. Obtained results confirmed the effectiveness of the measurement a concentration of odourant in the gas network using a portable gas chromatograph - difference in relation to the stationary chromatograph ranged from 1.91 to 2.55 %.
Ewa Miaśkiewicz-Pęska and Mirosław Szyłak-Szydłowski
Microbiological and chemical analysis of air was carried out on the area of landfill of wastes other than inert or hazardous. The landfill covers 20 ha and 40 000 Mg of wastes is deposited annually. Municipal waste is not segregated at the landfill. The research was conducted in April, May and November 2012. Number of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and fungi was estimated by a culture-based method. Quantitative determination of sulfur compounds and meteorological and olfactrometric examinations were also carried out. Chemical analysis was conducted with a Photovac Voyager portable gas chromatograph. Air samples were collected at 5 points. The largest group of microbes were psychrophilic bacteria, especially in summer. The highest concentration of hydrogen sulfide and other odorants was found at leachate tank and landfill body. According to the Polish Standard for the assessment of atmospheric air pollution the air in the area of the landfill is classified as not contaminated and sporadically moderately contaminated. In spring and summer the number of microscopic fungi was increased also in control samples.