Clay minerals from Weichselian glaciolimnic sediments of the Sępopolska Plain (NE Poland)
Glaciolimnic deposits sampled from three sedimentation reservoirs located on the Sępopolska Plain (northeastern Poland) were investigated. The material under study was deposited in the recession phase of the Pomeranian phase of Vistula (Weichselian) glaciation. The clay fraction was separated by centrifugation after preparation according to Jackson. Mineralogical investigations were done by X-ray diffraction. The analysed deposits had a similar complex composition of clay minerals. The main components were illites mixed with the illite/smectite mineral with percentages < 10 % S. Another part were minerals of the illite/smectite type which had differentiated content of smectite layers (mainly 80-90 % S). There were also chlorite minerals, probably as mixed layer minerals of the chlorite/vermiculite type or HIV with a negligible amount of chlorite layers. The results indicated that all the deposits were of the same age as well as similar deposited material and the samples are different from typical Pomeranian till and typical limnic material of the same age. Small differences observed among the deposits of specific sedimentation reservoirs were probably the result of later processes.
The objective of the work was to investigate hydrophobic properties of soil formations with various amounts of organic matter and occurring in young glacial landscape. The research was carried out in mineral, mineral-organic and organic (slightly and strongly silted mucks, sedge peat, alder wood peat, reed peat) soil formations. Water repellency is very important in soil protection. It favors the formation of stable aggregates and prevents from soil erosion. The study was carried out applying two methods . water drop penetration time test (WDPT) and alcohol percentage test (AP). Among 51 analyzed soil samples in WDPT test, 64.7% of mineral and mineral-organic soil formations were hydrophilic. Among organic soil formations 37.6% was slightly and strongly hydrophobic and they represented strongly silted mucks. Unsilted and slightly silted mucks, weakly and strongly decomposed peats, were very strongly (18.8%) and extremely (43.6%) hydrophobic. AP test showed that strongly silted mucks were moderately and very strongly hydrophobic. Slightly silted mucks, and peats were very strongly and extremely hydrophobic. It can be stated that water repellency decreases simultaneously with the degree of siltation of organic soil formations.
The aim of the research was to compare the results of texture analyses of glaciolimnic sediments deposited in the basins of ice-dammed lakes origin in north eastern Poland. The study was carried out using aerometric method, pipette method and laser diffraction method. The studied soils were classified as Haplic and Mollic Vertisol, Vertic Cambisol, and Gleyic Chernozem. The soils were formed from clayey (clay, heavy clay), loamy (loam, clay loam, sand clay loam) and silty (silt loam, clay loam) deposits. The studied soils did not contain fractions > 2.0 mm. The amounts of clay fraction (< 0.002 mm) measured by areometric and pipette methods were similar and strongly correlated. In comparison to laser diffraction method, these amounts were 3-4-fold higher. The sub-fraction of fine silt (0.02-0.002 mm) predominated in soil formations analyzed by laser diffraction method. In comparison to areometric or pipette method, the amounts of fine silt were 2-4 fold higher. Basing on the calculated sedimentological indices, it was stated that the examined soils were well sorted and the mean grain diameter (GSS) was very low and did not exceed 0.005 mm in areometric and pipette methods, and 0.011 mm in laser diffraction method for clay sediments.
The paper presents the impact of UGmax enricher on soil physical and water retention properties. The experiment was established in 2005 in a 2 ha field 9 km from Lidzbark Warmiński in the village of Budniki. The studied soils were classified as Cambisols and Luvisols (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015), and they were formed from glaciolimnic deposits. Soil bulk density, soil particle density, texture, total porosity and water retention properties using low and high-pressure chambers were determined. The use of UGmax enricher on loamy soils used as arable lands in temperate climate of north-eastern Poland caused significant decrease of soil bulk density, increase of available water capacity and readily available water capacity. Statistically significant differences between examined soil properties were observed in most studied years.