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  • Author: Mirosław Mularczyk x
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Presentation of the current state and development tendencies of Jewish urban settlement in Israel against the innovation diffusion theory.

Analysis of the growth tempo of the number of cities in Israel allows to claim that urban Jewish settlement network develops in accordance with the innovation diffusion model.

Assuming that the theory fits the urban settlement development pattern on the surveyed territories, the directions taken by the impulses sent by innovation sources have been determined based on the corridor settlement development theory.

The hypothesis has been verified against the factors influencing spatial development directions of the Jewish urban settlement using a dynamic (synchronic-comparative) diffusion process simulation model, built with the Monte Carlo method.

The conducted analyses and procedures verifying the model distribution of Jewish settlement in Israeli cities in 1948, 1967 and 1992 allowed to conclude that the highest stochastic concordance between the model accounting for the innovation diffusion theory elements, and the real distribution of Jewish settlement cities holds for 1948 and 1967. According to the diffusion innovation theory, these years correspond to the colonisation stage. The model diversifies from reality for late 1967, when network densification process was coming to an end and city competition stage was starting.

Despite statistical validity of the hypotheses, the results show that besides the analysed factors influencing the development of Jewish urban settlement, other variables, not accounted for in the model, are also significantly influential.

Higher Schools vs. Cities' Social Capital in the Light of Theory of Contacts Świetokrzyskie Voivodeship Case

Systemic transformation process in Poland has led to a dynamic development of higher schools. Those higher schools generate new, both formal and informal, connections triggered by people working there, especially by those at higher positions. This situation leads to the creation of relation networks. Thanks to them one can get, process and transfer information, enlarge the owned knowledge which is necessary to raise the productivity of own activities. In compliance with the theory of contacts it should lead to social capital growth which stimulates development of the analysed areas. The objective of this paper is to characterise and compare contacts of rectors and deputy rectors of state and private higher schools in Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship as well as to evaluate on this basis the part of social capital which develops thanks to formal contacts kept by the researched with people who are at a similar position in other institutions.


The objective of the paper is to present social and occupational changes in small towns in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship in regard to their accessibility to communication with larger towns in the examined area. Because of the availability of statistic data for the analysis, the time period from 1995 to 2004 was selected.

Answers to the following question were looked for in the paper:

– is there an interdependence between the directions of the occurring social and occupational changes (a change in the number of inhabitants, changes in internal migrations, changes in the employment structure) in small towns of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship and their accessibility to communication with larger towns (exceeding five thousand inhabitants) in the examined area.

A network of towns in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, in the form in which it functions since 1999 is examined.


The systemic transformation of Poland after 1989 led to an acceleration of restructuring processes both in the national economy and in individual regions. The dynamics of changes was exceptionally high in rural areas. The most rapid changes occurred in areas which are situated within the range of the direct influence of bigger cities. This paper strives to compare the changes in entrepreneurship which took place in the suburban areas of Kielce and Radom during the transformation period, before and after the introduction of the administrative reform in Poland.

We sought answers to the following questions:

– What differences occur in the dynamics of changes of the entrepreneurship indicator in sub-urban areas in case of two cities of a similar size, of which only Kielce has remained the regional (voivodship) capital?

– What differences occur in the dynamics of changes of the entrepreneurship indicator in relation to the distance from the central city?

In order to answer the above questions, the entrepreneurship indicators for agriculture, industry and service sectors were calculated for the analysed areas between 1995 and 2005.


As a result of suburbanization, intensification of urbanization processes in suburban areas is taking place. The suburban zone is understood to be an area located in direct neighbourhood of a city or town, related to it and being systematically transformed. It is also defined as a transient area between a village and a city/town, mainly in spatial terms (mixed forms of space development and transient settlement types). The aim of this paper is to define the attitudes of suburban local government authorities towards neighbouring city/town. In order to achieve this aim, methods of analytic description, direct observation, analysis of documents such as “Local development plans”, “Development Strategies”, “The study of causation and directions in spatial management” of suburban municipalities in the Kielce county were used.


The aim of the study was to determine the demographic types of all small cities in Poland in 2013 and to identify the standards of their spatial diversity. The following questions were posed: Which demographic types are dominant among the small cities of Poland? Is there a relation between a specific demographic type and the size of the city? Does the structure of small cities according to their demographic types relate to their distance from main roads and urban agglomerations? The study applied the Webb’s typology, the K. Doi leading element method, the departure from average indicator, and the nonparametric Chi squared test. The spatial regularities were identified based on the created maps.

The results of the study show that small cities of Poland in 2013 were represented by all demographic types, but most of them were regressive. They were established in 80% of small cities. The main element determining the population trends of small cities was the negative migration balance, which was observed in 80% of the surveyed areas. It was also established that the population of small cities has a slight impact on population trends. The most important aspect of their development is the distance from agglomerations and main roads.


The aim of this paper is to determine the expectations of students from selected Polish academic centers toward facilities at agritourist farms, and identifying the socio-demographic characteristics that determined those expectations. A survey method was used in this research. Using the Likert’s five-level scale, respondents rated the significance of elements of agritourist farm facilities. It was found that academic youth expected, above all, facilities for enabling passive leisure and the independent preparation of meals. Provision of facilities for active leisure were of less significance to them. Gender, place of living, field of study and prior experience connected to leisure on the farms analyzed were not factors that differentiated students’ expectations. A weak correlation was found between students’ expectations of facilities at agritourist farms and their economic status. Students’ expectations were very similar to the expectations of the average agritourist. Research results confirmed some of the results known from the literature, stating that socio-demographic characteristics differentiated the expectations of academic youth to a small extent. However, the effects obtained did not correspond to results claiming that age, gender, place of living and income have a significant influence on tourist expectations. Additionally psychographic characteristics should be considered in the following research. A combination of demographic and psychographic characteristics may offer a wider base for analysis and give better end results, allowing market segmentation.


The objective of this paper is to compare the reasons for choosing a degree in geography by students starting their studies in two academic centres: Warsaw and Kielce. The first is a big city with rich traditions and one of the best academic centres in Poland, while the second is regional, much smaller but developing. In the research, special attention was paid to the reasons for choosing geography as a major, a variety of ideas considering future job and professional prospects open to geography graduates as well as attitudes toward the profession of a geography teacher. The research involved interviews with first and second-year students in both centres.


The aim of this paper is to determine changes in the structure of demographic types of small towns in Poland between 2004 and 2013. It is assumed in the paper, following the Central Statistical Office of Poland, that small towns are urban settlements having less than 20,000 inhabitants. The time period covered in this study is the time of Poland’s accession to the EU, which brought reduction of many barriers on the labour market and in migration movement. Demographic types of small towns were determined using Webb’s typology. Natural increase and migration indicators constitute its base. It was found that the share of towns of progressive character decreased and the share of those of regressive character increased in the analyzed period. A negative migration balance had the greatest effect on the number of inhabitants of the analyzed settlement units. The described demographic changes in small towns in Poland were connected with the second stage of demographic transition.


The objective of the paper is to present the development and distribution of microfirms in mid-size Polish towns during the years of transformation of the political system. Research comprised towns with a population numbering from 20 thousand to 100 thousand inhabitants. According to the Central Office of Statistics reporting standards it is recognized that micro enterprises are economic entities employing up to nine people. Research has shown that a dynamic growth of microfirms took place during the transformation period in mid-size Polish towns. Majority of them came into being in towns with high tourism values located near border crossing points, along the main communication routes, on the edge of great urban-industrial agglomerations and towns located within special economic zones. On the other hand, the least number of microfirms were recorded in towns with less than 50 thousand inhabitants, usually peripherally located in a given voivodship.