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Open access

Karol Deręgowski and Mirosław Krzyśko

SUMMARY

Kernel principal components (KPC) and kernel discriminant coordinates (KDC), which are the extensions of principal components and discriminant coordinates, respectively, from a linear domain to a nonlinear domain via the kernel trick, are two very popular nonlinear feature extraction methods. The kernel discriminant coordinates space has proven to be a very powerful space for pattern recognition. However, further study shows that there are still drawbacks in this method. To improve the performance of pattern recognition, we propose a new learning algorithm combining the advantages of KPC and KDC

Open access

Mirosław Krzyśko and Łukasz Waszak

Summary

Classical canonical correlation analysis seeks the associations between two data sets, i.e. it searches for linear combinations of the original variables having maximal correlation. Our task is to maximize this correlation, and is equivalent to solving a generalized eigenvalue problem. The maximal correlation coefficient (being a solution of this problem) is the first canonical correlation coefficient. In this paper we propose a new method of constructing canonical correlations and canonical variables for a pair of stochastic processes represented by a finite number of orthonormal basis functions.

Open access

Mirosław Krzysko, Tadeusz Smiałowski and Waldemar Wołynski

Abstract

In this paper we consider a set of T repeated measurements on p characteristics on each of n individuals. The n individuals themselves may be divided and randomly assigned to K groups. These data are analyzed using a mixed effect MANOVA model, assuming that the data on an individual have a covariance matrix which is a Kronecker product of two positive definite matrices. Results are illustrated on a data set obtained from experiments with varieties of winter rye.

Open access

Monika Jakubus, Mirosław Krzyśko, Waldemar Wołyński and Małgorzata Graczyk

Abstract

Recycling of crop residues is essential to sustain soil fertility and crop production. Despite the positive effect of straw incorporation, the slow decomposition of that organic substance is a serious issue. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of winter wheat straws with different degrees of stem solidness on the rate of decomposition and soil properties. An incubation experiment lasting 425 days was carried out in controlled conditions. To perform analyses, soil samples were collected after 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 119, 147, 175, 203, 231, 259, 313, 341, 369, 397 and 425 days of incubation. The addition of two types of winter wheat straw with different degree of stem solidness into the sandy soil differentiated the experimental treatments. The results demonstrate that straw mineralization was a relatively slow process and did not depend on the degree of filling of the stem by pith. Multivariate functional principal component analysis (MFPC) gave proof of significant variation between the control soil and the soil incubated with the straws. The first functional principal component describes 48.53% and the second 18.55%, of the variability of soil properties. Organic carbon, mineral nitrogen and sum of bases impact on the first functional principal component, whereas, magnesium, sum of bases and total nitrogen impact on the second functional principal component.

Open access

Mirosław Krzyśko, Adriana Derejko, Tomasz Górecki and Edward Gacek

Summary

The aim of this paper is to present a statistical methodology to assess patterns of cultivars' adaptive response to agricultural environments (agroecosystems) on the basis of complete Genotype x Crop Management x Location x Year (GxMxLxY) data obtained from 3-year multi-location twofactor trials conducted within the framework of the Polish post-registration trials (PDOiR), with an illustration of the application and usefulness of this methodology in analyzing winter wheat grain yield. Producing specific varieties for each subregion of a target region, from widely adapted varieties, may exploit positive genotype x location (GL) interactions to increase crop yields. Experiments designed to examine combinations of environment (E), management practices (M) and cultivars (G) also provide evidence of the relative importance of each of these factors for yield improvement. The evidence shows that variation due to E far outweighs the variation of grain yield that can be attributed to M or G, or the interactions between these factors, and between these factors and E (Anderson, 2010). This statistical method involves the use of functional PCA and cluster analysis. A total of 24 cultivars were evaluated over 3 years in 20 environments using randomized incomplete split-block designs with two replications per trial. The methodology proved an efficient tool for the reliable classification of 24 winter wheat cultivars, distinguishing cultivar groups that exhibited homogeneous adaptive response to environments. It enables the identification of cultivars displaying wide or specific adaptation. The remaining cultivars were locally adapted to some testing environments, or some of them were not relatively adapted to the environments because they always yielded substantially below the environmental means. Performing earlier specific selection, or adopting distinct genetic bases for each agro-ecosystem, may further increase the advantage of specific breeding.