Rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils were collected from six topsoils of grasslands in the Lower Vistula River Valley. The research covered the areas of the floodplains between the stream channel of the Vistula River and the flood embankment within the mesoregions of the Fordon Valley and the Grudziądz Basin. The research area, found in the Chełmiński and Nadwiślański Complex of Landscape Parks, is exposed to annual floods. The fluvial sediments are deposited during short-term and, most frequently spring, high discharges of the Vistula River. The amount of the material deposited in the floodplain valleys depends on the range of the flood and landscape-specific local conditions. In the rhizospheric soil of the common dandelion, a higher content of the clay fraction and organic matter was found, as compared with the non-rhizospheric soil material. The total content of Fe, Mn, Cd and Ni and their forms extractable with the DTPA solution differed between the rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soil. A lower total concentration of the metals was noted in the rhizospheric soil at all the sampling sites. The concentrations of FeDTPA and MnDTPA forms in Fluvisols were much higher than the concentration defined as the deficit one. A relatively high content of organic matter and the clay fraction in rhizospheric soil makes the metals bound by the sorption complex, thus limiting their bioavailability. Under Regulation of Minister of the Environment of 9 September 2002, concerning soil quality standards for protected areas compliant with nature protection laws, the total concentration of Cd and Ni in non-rhizospheric soil was slightly higher than the admissible value (1.0 and 35.0 mg • kg−1, respectively). Since no unfavourable effect of trace elements on the environment was demonstrated and as the floodplain areas are under agricultural use, to evaluate the pollution, the standards applicable for agricultural land were assumed. According to those criteria, the soils are not classified as polluted with cadmium and nickel.
The use of cereals and rapeseed straw ash in the fertilisation of soils has been one of the alternative straw management methods. Adding high ash rates to soil decreased its acidity and increased the total content of copper and zinc as well as the forms of those metals extracted with the DTPA solution. Due to a low natural richness of those soils in bioavailable metal forms, the ash application to fertilise light soil, despite a low content of copper and zinc in the post-burning ash waste, must be still considered beneficial. The use of barley, wheat and rapeseed straw ash at the rate exceeding 2 Mg×ha.1 resulted in a significant increase in the total content of copper and zinc and their forms available to plants.
Clay minerals from Weichselian glaciolimnic sediments of the Sępopolska Plain (NE Poland)
Glaciolimnic deposits sampled from three sedimentation reservoirs located on the Sępopolska Plain (northeastern Poland) were investigated. The material under study was deposited in the recession phase of the Pomeranian phase of Vistula (Weichselian) glaciation. The clay fraction was separated by centrifugation after preparation according to Jackson. Mineralogical investigations were done by X-ray diffraction. The analysed deposits had a similar complex composition of clay minerals. The main components were illites mixed with the illite/smectite mineral with percentages < 10 % S. Another part were minerals of the illite/smectite type which had differentiated content of smectite layers (mainly 80-90 % S). There were also chlorite minerals, probably as mixed layer minerals of the chlorite/vermiculite type or HIV with a negligible amount of chlorite layers. The results indicated that all the deposits were of the same age as well as similar deposited material and the samples are different from typical Pomeranian till and typical limnic material of the same age. Small differences observed among the deposits of specific sedimentation reservoirs were probably the result of later processes.
To assess the soil quality of Phaeozems and Luvisols from Kujawy region (Kujawy-Pomerania Province, Poland), the soil quality indicators such as: content of organic matter and nutrients, as well as bulk density were used. The soils showed similar inherent properties (soil texture, depth to parent material, type of clay) and management practices (tillage, crop rotation, nutrient application). The following properties were determined: bulk density, grain size composition, exchangeable acidity, concentration of available forms of potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, and the content of total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (Nt). The amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) were measured in the solution obtained after extraction with 0.004 M CaCl2. The stock of TOCs, Nts and DOCs, and DNs were calculated. The total organic carbon content in surface horizon of Phaeozems was significant higher (13.9-20.1 g·kg-1) than in Ap horizon of Luvisols (8.3-11.0 g·kg-1), which is a consequence of their origin. The stock of organic carbon in Ap horizon fell within 5.89 to 8.49 kg·m2 in Phaeozems and 3.80 to 4.81 kg·m2 in Luvisols. Although Phaeozems demonstrated a significant higher content of TOC, as compared with Luvisols, the amount of dissolved organic carbon was similar in both soil types, which points to a higher share of DOC in the total organic carbon content in Luvisols (up to 17.5% in Et horizon). The amounts of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved nitrogen and their stock do not depend on the type of soils if the management practices are similar.
Introduction: The high concentration of some trace elements in medicinal plants may lowering the value of herbal material, and may cause poisoning effects.
Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the content of trace elements in the organs of: sandy everlasting, yarrow and stinging nettle.
Methods: In the soil samples, the grain size composition, pH, the content of carbon and nitrogen were determined. In the plant material and for the soil samples, the total contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb were assayed. The values of the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor were also calculated.
Results: The concentration of metals in plant tissues followed in order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Hg. The studied species of medicinal plants accumulated mainly Zn, Pb and Hg. It was also shown a high Hg mobility and a low Pb mobility which mainly accumulated in the roots.
Conclusions: As our research shows the plants used in phytotherapy, should come from plantations monitored for toxic heavy metals in soil.