Marek Adamski, Joanna Kuźniacka and Mirosław Banaszak
The analysis of slaughter yield and meat quality was performed on a total number of 96 birds from four medium-heavy weight pedigree strains. Based on their strain, cockerels were divided into the following groups: group I - strain N88 (originating from New Hampshire), group II - strain R55 (Rhode Island Red), group III - strain S11 (Sussex) and group IV - strain P55 (Plymouth Rock). Each group consisted of 24 birds. At 12 weeks of age, half of the cockerels from each group was caponised. In total, 48 birds were caponised (12 birds in each strain). Based on the strain, capons were then divided into groups V (N88), VI (R55), VII (S11) and VIII (P55). It was noted that the strain and caponisation had influence on differences in such traits as the weight of eviscerated carcass with neck and slaughter yield. On the other hand, it was observed that caponisation did not affect significantly the total weight, percentage share of breast and drumstick muscles in carcasses of birds from analysed strains. No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of physicochemical properties of meat. The highest content of water in breast and drumstick muscles was observed among cockerels and capons from strain N88 (groups I and V). Protein content in cockerels’ breast muscles differed depending on their strain whilst among capons (groups V-VIII) it was similar. It was also noted that capons originating from strains S11 (VII) and P55 (VIII) stood out significantly with higher fat content in breast muscles compared to cockerels from the same strain (groups III and IV). The effect of caponisation on higher fat content in drumstick muscles was confirmed in all observed groups. Capons from all strains had more fat in drumstick muscles compared to cockerels of the same origin.
Mirosław Adamski, Mariusz Adamski and Andrzej Szelmanowski
The article presents the new built in Poland helmet mounted cueing system NSC-1 Orion with a magnetic method, dedicated to the multi-purpose helicopters W-3PL Gluszec. This system uses the magnetic field generated by the system of three mutually orthogonal electric coils. The principle of operation of this system is described and the method of determining the angular position of the pilot’s helmet relative to the helicopter’s cabin using the reference magnetic field and the directional cosines matrix are discussed. Electrical flat coils, constructed in the Polish Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT), generating a magnetic field with curved symmetry axis characteristics, causing errors in determining the angular position of the pilot’s helmet are shown. As a way to minimize these errors, an original proprietary algorithm for correcting the negative impact of the magnetic field curvature generated by the on-board system has been presented. Mathematical relations describing the presented correction process as well as selected results of simulation and experimental investigations in the area of inaccuracy of the “before” and “after” systems of applying the developed algorithm were given. Inaccuracies determined from computer simulations of the developed mathematical relations were compared with experimental data from magnetic field measurements using the integrated three-axis sensor ADIS-16405, used in the laboratory of the AFIT Avionics Division for helmet control of the angular position of the moving observation and sighting head and reflector-search light.
Mirosław Adamski, Jacek Mieżaniec and Ariel Adamski
An unmanned aerial vehicle is a flying apparatus that does not require a crewmember on board to complete a task. Its piloting is done by means of indirect control. UAVs also have the ability to perform autonomous flight on a pre-programmed flight path. The purpose of the study was to use the unmanned aircraft “Fly Eye” by WB Electronic used by the Border Guard to patrol the state border in 103 TRA zone on the section of the Republic of Poland with the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation. The TRA zones constitute a specially designated area for the use of the Border Guard and the army, in order to carry out flights there beyond the scope of the pattern for training purposes and to patrol the state border. The article also contains information of the Border Guard formation and the characteristics of the unmanned aerial vehicle “FlyEye”. In order to ensure the safety of the UAV flight, the test was carried out in the TRA zone, which is used for special use for the Border Guard formation and the army.
Mirosław Adamski, Mariusz Adamski, Ariel Adamski and Andrzej Szelmanowski
The pilot, while performing certain tasks or being in the battlefield environment works in a time lag. He is forced to properly interpret the information and quickly and correctly take action. Therefore, the instruments in the cabin should be arranged in such a way that they are legible and the operator have always-easy access to them. Due to the dynamics of the aircraft and the time needed to process the information by the pilot, a reaction delay occurs, resulting in the plane flying in an uncontrolled manner even up to several hundred meters. This article discusses the VFR and IFR flight characteristics, the pilot’s attention during flight, cabin ergonomics, and the placement of on-board instruments having a significant impact on the safety of the task performed in the air. In addition, tests have been carried out to determine exactly what the pilot’s eye is aimed at while completing the aerial task. Six basic devices were identified: altimeter, artificial horizon, speedometer, turn indicator with transverse gauge, variometer and heading indicator. They also started to think about how to position them in relation to each other in order to achieve the best results in terms of ergonomics, which include, minimizing time of reading individual parameters, grouping devices with parameters closely related to each other, reducing to a minimum the value of errors during reading and the smallest possible pilot’s effort.
Andrzej Żyluk, Mariusz Zieja, Mirosław Adamski and Karol Kawka
Usage of mobile technology will help the flying personnel to coordinate and implement assigned tasks. Due to usage of smartphone, equipped with appropriate application, user will have the ability to track all task and recommendations with are automatically generated by the system. This type of solution will eliminate prophylaxis and training failings and positively affect the ability to flight of aviation personnel. Furthermore presented tool is also a mobile source of knowledge, data base containing: bulletins, information about aviation events, etc. The paper is a characteristic of the mobile application designated to supervise preventive and training duties of flying personnel, it presents operation algorithm, mathematical model and describes the purpose of the application.
The electromagnetic rail launcher is a type of high-energy weapon that uses a strong magnetic field to project missiles. To create this field, a current pulse source is needed to provide sufficiently high voltages and currents. The study thoroughly examines the principle of electromagnetic operation of the rail launcher, with particular emphasis on how to achieve the highest electromagnetic field strength. The analysis has been subjected to the source of the impulse current and the tendency of their development in the near future. The subject of the appropriate rails selection and their mutual arrangement has been touched up to attain adequate strength against the harmful effects associated with the flow of high currents. Considerations have been taken to protect the rails from the harmful effects of large-scale current flows, and the topic of the projectile itself to the electromagnetic field was raised. The rapid development of technology over the last few years indicates that high-energy weapons will be the basic weapon of all types of forces in the near future. The development of electromagnetic railroads requires the solution of many mechanical problems and harmful phenomena.