International movement of capital is one of the most important forms of international economic cooperation and achievement of strategic goals of enterprises. It leads to international diversification of business activities, strengthening of competitive advantage, changes in economic structures, employment rates and economic stability of participating countries. The present research addresses the contemporary forms of international movement of capital, with an emphasis on the public-private partnerships and concessions. The creation of different forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in Serbia gained in importance in the early ‘90s of the 20th century. PPP implies joint activities within the framework of which the public and private sector pool resources, especially financial capital and expertise in order to meet the public needs of local, regional or national significance for adequate resource allocation. This type of partnership between the public and private sector has become an effective way towards a more rational use of limited resources and development of business entities from different sectors. The partnership of the public and private sector is particularly important in the construction and maintenance of transportation and other infrastructure facilities. Concessions represent a special form of public-private partnerships.
The рurрοѕe οf any eсοnοmiс-based aсtivitу is the creation of needs. As the financial activities are not an exception to this rule, understanding clients’ necessities and their satisfaction is of primary concern for all financial institutions. Being conversant with the exact details that constitute client behaviour and the processes that lead to particular decisions, has become an advantage for financial institutions investing resources in it. Finally, it will not only pay off by satisfying the clients’ needs, but it will also secure a long-standing loyalty and relationships with them. As all relationships, the one between the client and the bank requires support and mutual understanding.
Given the Serbian retail banking market, we may conclude the following: firstly, there is still potential for doing business in this filed; secondly, the particular segments of customers would accept new products; and thirdly, banks have to focus on the highest ranking clients concerning their credit worthiness. As regards the client behaviour over different product offerings, we can conclude that cash loans and credit card holders are not price sensitive, and that subsequently, the existing holders intend to increase their credit exposure.
As a rule, long-term bank loans entail solid security - a mortgage, regardless of their purpose. The mortgaged property has its specific market value during the loan approval period but during the repayment period, the value of the real estate varies. This is the reason why the initially specified indicator of the coverage of loans with the value of the mortgage - the LTV ratio changes, which in turn increases the risk of loan repayment. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the necessity of establishing adequate initial LTV ratios (together with other important ratios). This would help nullify the risk of any variations in real estate prices, the loan currency risk, the interest rate risk, as well as the risk of an increase in bank's claims because of a long foreclosure process. The paper analyses effects of changes in LTV ratios caused by varying circumstances using the case study method. The comparative method analyses the changing trends of data on the LTV ratios for the already approved loans over a seven-year period by comparing the flow of the loan capital sum with the real value of the mortgage for three types of loans. The conclusion reached is that commercial banks should establish the initial LTV ratio for various long-term loan products and thus prevent its rise. Banks should do this by taking into account all the factors that cause the ratio’s increase, and thus give preference to the reduction of the credit risk and not the attractiveness and accessibility of loan products.