In freight road transport, the price per unit of transport is not the same for each shipment for reason, that many factors influence the cost of shipping. An important aspect, in addition to cost inputs, which decides, how high will the shipping cost it is the destination where the transportation takes place. The purpose of this article is to identify the impact of the change of destination on carrier costs. Authors will not deal with specific costs related to the change of destination, which include, for example, charges for the use of the road network or travel compensation to the driver, but will only deal with the probability of vehicle back-up. If the carrier is unable to backhaul of the vehicle, the initial shipping costs increase significantly.
The paper deals with the issue of different market access for the transport procurement in the EU in context of open market of providing forwarding services. It highlights different requirements of market access in freight forwarding. The article proposes conditions of market access unification in freight forwarding based on analysis of the existing situation. It also refers to the different responsibility of freight forwarder depending on membership in the national associations of freight forwarders. The contribution analyses the limitation of liability in freight forwarding and shows differences in contract of freight forwarding for particular shipments by model examples. There is also pointed to the need for the development of uniform freight forwarding conditions in the EU.
The article presents an analysis of traffic safety on major communication routes in Poland. The total number of accidents in Poland has been compared and analysed in relation to the objectives in the context of the GAMBIT programs and the National Road Safety Program for the years 2013-2020. Analyses of the number of accidents in the years 2004-2017 have been presented in the article. A significant decrease in accidents has been demonstrated and annual changes determined, the value of which ranged from 12.15 to 6.74%. The statistics on fatalities have been also analysed. A midyear change in the number of fatalities has been determined, which constitute -4.4% in the analysed period. The data on the number of vehicles registered in Poland, which considerably affects traffic congestion, has been presented. In spite of this, there has been no increase in the number of accidents. The work compares changes in the length of the most important types of routes in Poland, as well as accidents and fatalities that occurred on them. With the decreasing overall number of accidents in Poland, there has been a noticeable drop in accidents per 100 km of road length also on these roads. The fatality rate per 100 accidents in Poland has been determined and the average value of this rate in 2017 was 8.64, while on the analysed roads it ranged from 12.3 to 14.6.
International road transport is a specific service within the frame of services provided in the European Union. It is because the conditions of being active on the market are influenced by the states where businessmen operate, but services can be provided throughout the whole year in other member states of the European Union. The aim of the contribution is to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector. These problems persist despite the fact that market access was exempted from the national law of individual member states and regulated directly by EU regulations. Despite the unification of market access, tax and social harmonization is not ensured in international road freight transport. An unequal tax burden on carriers and different requirements of wage regulations create a discriminatory environment among entrepreneurs. The contribution identifies the factors that deform the equal operating conditions in single market. The aim of the contribution is also to provide the readers with the answers to the questions: Is it possible under current EU conditions to harmonize tax and social conditions? What impact would this harmonization have on business environment?
Enterprise in the EU is currently a single market business, but on which the conditions are not completely unified. In the case of mineral oil excise duty a minimum level of taxation is set by EU rules, but individual states do not strictly prescribe a specific rate of tax. It is a fact for international road transport, that there are states on the route of transport, where it is preferable to pump fuel. Because the mineral oil tax is an income of state budget in concrete state, is good for the state, if the carrier pumps fuel on the territory of that state. For carriers who only drive within the country the higher tax rate is more advantageous in terms of choice. For this reason, some EU countries apply for the selected group of entrepreneurs, the refund of excise duty due to the use of carriers in their territory and to achieve higher tax deduction in cumulative terms. The purpose of this contribution is to identify the possibilities for refunding excise duty in the Slovak Republic and to propose a procedure for assessing the effects of the refund of excise duty on mineral oils.
The working conditions of truck drivers and social legislation are both topical and political issues in the field of road freight transport. The contribution outlines problems which are linked to the observance of the ban on weekly rest in the vehicle. Based on the judgment, the Court of Justice of the European Union explicitly forbids drivers to take their regular weekly rest in the vehicle. The contribution identifies the impact of the ban on spending weekly rest in the vehicle on transport planning in the EU. The aim of the contribution is also to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector in connection with insufficient number of truck parks with accommodation.
The significance of the issue of an effective mode of passenger transport is currently increasing. On the one hand, there is the increasing economic demand of public passenger transport, on the other hand, there is the growing traffic share of individual automobile transport. The objective of the paper is to analyze public passenger transport without mutual integration of individual transport systems resulting in the fact that it is not sufficiently able to compete with individual automobile transport. It is proposed the integration of different modes of public passenger transport as a way to increase the competitiveness of public passenger transport. Aim of this paper is to analyze the individual elements of integration systems and describe why integration of public passenger transport systems is needed.
International road transport is a specific service within the frame of services provided in the European Union. It is because the conditions of being active on the market are influenced by the states where businessmen operate, but services can be provided throughout the whole year in other member states of the European Union. The aim of the contribution is to highlight the existing problems in international road freight transport sector. These problems persist despite the fact that market access was exempted from the national law of individual member states and regulated directly by EU regulations. The contribution identifies the factors that deform the equal operating conditions in single market.
In general, transport companies have an unimportant role in the business market, in order to achieve the required sales and the related profit. Competition in road transport is great and enforcement from a large number of carriers is considerable. It is the price for the transport of goods that plays the most important role how to get the carrier and the customer who wants the lowest transport price. On the contrary, the carrier would like to get the highest amount for the shipment. A compromise between these two requirements should form the required shipping price. Pricing involves a factor other than costs, the attractiveness of the transport destination, in terms of the possibility of return utilization the vehicle. The aim of the paper is to verify the hypothesis, that the cost of transport is affected not only by the carrier’s costs, but also the target destination of the ordered shipment.