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Miloš Marković and Božo Bokan

Abstract

This study tested an instrument entitled “Physical Culture and Ethics” which consisted of 44 statements to which subjects responded on a Likert-type five-point scale. The statements reflected the ethical theories of Aristotle (14 statements), Kant (14 statements) and Mill (16 statements).

The hypothetical model of ethical theories was verified on a sample of 163 students at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Belgrade (119 male students and 44 female students), attending all years of study (n1=22, n2=34, n3=36, n4=48, n5=23). We hypothesized that students would display greater maturity in terms of education and reaffirm their positions towards ethical issues in physical culture as they progressed in their studies, and also that the male and the female students had their specific moral outlooks on the reality of physical culture.

When comparing the basic statistical indicators of students’ responses to statements reflecting the ethical theories (Aristotle, Kant, Mill) against the year of study students were in (mean value and standard deviation) – certain variation in values from the first to the fifth year of study was observed, thus confirming the hypothesis.

When comparing the basic statistical indicators of male and female students’ responses to statements reflecting the ethical theories (Aristotle, Kant, Mill) – female students’ results were better on all scales, and Aristotle’s ethical theory showed a statistical significance, thus confirming the second hypothesis as well.

Open access

Božo Bokan and Miloš Marković

Summary

In a theoretical essay authors have conducted an analysis of the papers by one of the most significant theoreticians and practitioners of methodology of physical education in Serbia, full-time professor Milivoje Matić, PhD. Four publications by this author found themselves to be the focus of the analysis: “Physical Education Class” (1978), “Axiological and Methodological Bases of Revalorization of Physical Movement-Exercise” (1982), “Physical Education - Introduction to Expert and Theoretical Improvement” (1990) and “General Theory of Physical Culture” (2005). With the application of theoretical analysis and content analysis of said books, and relying on theoretical conceptions of leading theoreticians and philosophers, authors have interpreted the potential contribution of Milivoje Matić to the theory and practice of physical education, as well as to the general theory of physical culture. “Matić's Methodics of Morals”, modelled on Kant's deontological ethics theory can be considered an original contribution to the theory and practice of physical education. In the area of general theory of physical culture Milivoje Matić has elevated the theory of physical culture to the level of philosophical contemplation by introducing elements of philosophical thinking into theoretical discussions, which is his original contribution to the development of the general theory of physical culture.

Open access

Miloš Nikolić, Tatjana Marković, Dejan Marković, Jasmina Glamočlija, Ana Ćirić, Marija Smiljković and Marina Soković

Summary

Chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of commercial essential oils’ samples from the aerial plant parts of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis were investigated. Analyses by GC-FID and GC-MS confirmed 52 oil components. The major constituent of the H. officinalis oil was cis-pinocamphone (34.4%), followed by transpinocamphone (23.3%), and β-pinene (11.3%). Analysis of R. officinalis oil revealed 1.8-cineol as a major constituent (43.8%), as well as transpinocamphone (12.5%), α-pinene (11.5%) and β-pinene (8.2%). The most dominant constituent of S. officinalis oil was cis-thujone (32.7%), in addition to camphor (17.2%), 1.8-cineol (10.1%), α-pinene (8.6%), transthujone (7.7%) and camphene (7.3%). The essential oil antimicrobial activity assay was performed by the use of microdilution method against oral Candida spp. and bacteria, the major causative agents of a number of human oral disorders; all of them were susceptible to tested concentrations of H. officinalis, R. officinalis and S. officinalis essential oils, although the oil of S. officinalis exhibited the lowest antimicrobial potential. The results obtained in this study encourage use of investigated essential oils from Lamiaceae family in development of safe natural agents for prevention and/ or alternative therapy of human oral diseases. However, a special care during development of an effective natural preparation is required.

Open access

Jovana Vojvodic, Goran Mihajlovic, Ana Andonov, Milos Markovic, Jelena Djordjevic and Petar Vojvodic

Abstract

Depression represents a mood disorder and is considered to be one of the most common mental disorders in general. World Health Organization estimates that depression will be the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years, until 2030. Depression is a complex heterogeneous disorder where immune system and its regulation play an important role. Innate and adaptive immunity mecha nisms are included, along with processes of immune activation and suppression. The expression of humoral factors of innate immunity, especially pro-inflammatory cytokines, is increased, whereas the intensity of cellular immune mechanisms, primarily T cells and NK cells, are impaired. The influence of pro-inflammatory cytokines on depression is reflected in their effect on certain enzymes and ensuing reduction of neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. They also affect the neuroendocrine function in central nervous system, resulting in increase of cortisol levels and inactivation of glucocorticoid receptors in the periphery, which leads to neurodegeneration and decrease in neurotransmitter production. Certain cytokines affect neuroplasticity through the decreasing of concentration of neurotrophic brain factor and induction of brain cell apoptosis. The results are often contradictory talking about mechanisms of adaptive immunity. On one hand, an increased activity of Tlymphocytes is observed, while on the other, there are evidence of spontaneous apoptosis and impaired function of these cells in depression. In addition, neuroprotective role of autoreactive and regulatory T cells in prevention of depression has also been demonstrated. The aim of this paper is to analyze the current knowledge on the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of depression.

Open access

Milena Acimovic, Snezana Vidakovic, Natasa Milic, Katarina Jeremic, Milos Markovic, Ana Milosevic-Djeric and Gordana Lazovic-Radonjic

Summary

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of peripheral blood markers as additional diagnostic tools to transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) findings in the diagnosis of endometriosis.

Methods: This study included 40 patients undergoing laparoscopy for suspected endometriosis from January to December 2012. Preoperative levels of serum CA125, CA19-9, CEA and mRNA expression levels for survivin and VEGF were obtained. Real-time PCR was used to determine relative gene expression. A new diagnostic score was obtained by deploying the peripheral blood markers to the TVU findings. Statistical methods used were Chi-square, Fisher’s, Student’s t-test or the Mann - Whitney test.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in serum CA125, survivin and VEGF levels in patients with endometriosis and those without endometriosis (p<0.001, p=0.025 and p=0.009, respectively). False negative TVU findings were noted in 3/13 patients (23.1%) with peritoneal endometriosis without ovaries involvement. High sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (90.0%), PPV (96.6%), NPV (81.8%) and accuracy (92.5%) were obtained for a diagnostic score based on TVU and significant peripheral blood markers (CA125, survivin and VEGF).

Conclusions: Determination of serum CA125, mRNA expression levels for survivin and VEGF along with TVU can contribute to higher accuracy of the noninvasive diagnostic tools for endometriosis.

Open access

Aleksandar Jankovic, Jovan Ikonomovski, Petar Djuric, Milos Mitrovic, Jelena Tosic- Dragovic, Ana Bulatovic, Jasmina Lipkovski-Markovic, Gordana Basta-Jovanovic, Danica Vujic and Nada Dimkovic

Abstract

Introduction. Renal biopsy represents a diagnostic method that provides an acurrate diagnosis and adequate treatment of different renal diseases. The first biopsy in our Center was done in June 1982, but it has been performing routinely since 1984. The aim of this study was to report the histopathological features of biopsy proven kidney disease during the past 30 years.

Methods. During 30 years, a total of 563 biopsies were performed, of which 530(94%) were succesfull. Data about gender, age, clinical syndrome and histopatological finding were collected from the medical records.

Results. The mean age of our patients was 48±11 years, 53% were man (No=272). In the first decade (1982-1994) we performed 118(mean age 50±13), in the second (1995- 2004) 208 (mean age 46±14), and in the third decade (2005-2014) 189 renal biopsies (mean age 50±16). Mean number of glomeruli per biopsy was 18±11. There were only two serious complications. The most common clinical syndromes as indication for renal biopsy were: nephrotic proteinuria (41%) followed by asymptomatic urinary abnormalities (AUA-14.8%), chronic renal failure (CRF-13.8%), acute kidney injury (AKI-12.8%), nephritic syndrome (7.6%), systemic lupus erytematosus (SLE- 4.5%), isolated haematuria (2.7% of the cases) and other (2.9%). The major histological groups identified were: primary glomerulonephritis (GN) (62.3%), secondary GN (21.2%), and other (16.5% of the cases). The most common primary glomerulonephritis (PGN) were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-FSGS (19.4%) followed by IgA nephropathy-IgAN (18.8%), membranous GNMGN (16.4%) and mesangial proliferation-MesGN (16%). Interstitial changes were present in 55% of biopsy samples in the first, in 66% in the second and in 63% in the third decade. Blood vessel changes were present in 39% of biopsy samples in the first, in 62% in the second and in 72% in the third decade.

Conclusions. The most frequent finding among PGN was mesangioproliferative GN (including IgAN, alltogether 34.8%) followed by FSGS and MGN. Apart from succesful biopsies, there are several aspects to be improved in the future including expanding indications and earlier procedure during the course of chronic kidney disease-CKD.

Open access

Mirjana Milovanović, Miloš Milosavljević, Marjanović S Đorđe, Saša Trailović M, Marijana Vučinić, Jelena Nedeljković Trailović, Maja Marković and Dragan Đurđević

Abstract

Carvacrol is a monoterpenic phenol and an active ingredient of the plant essential oils of the family Lamiaceae. We have investigated the analgesic effect of carvacrol, the possible dependence of the effect in relation to animal sex, and the impact of carvacrol on motor coordination in rats. Hyperalgesia was induced by formalin (1.5%), which was administered SC in the upper lip of rat. Hyperalgesia and effects of carvacrol and indomethacin were measured by using the orofacial formalin test. The influence on motor coordination in animals treated with carvacrol was investigated by using the rota-rod test. Carvacrol administered PO in pre-treatment (45 min. prior to formalin) at a single dose of 50, 75 and 100 mg /kg BW, in the male, 50 and 100 mg /kg BW, in female rats caused a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. This effect of carvacrol was significantly higher (P<0.01, P<0.001) in male rats. Compared with indomethacin administered during pre-treatment (2 mg/kg, PO), carvacrol (100 mg/kg) exhibits significantly higher (P <0.05 and P <0.001) antinociceptive effect on formalininduced hyperalgesia in male rats. In the rota-rod test carvacrol did not disturb the motor coordination in male rats, nor the dose of carvacrol with clear antinociceptive properties exhibited depressive effect on the CNS of treated rats. Keeping in mind that the monoterpene carvacrol is of plant origin, with potentially less side effects and without residues, it is realistic to expect the possibility of its therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammatory pain in animals.