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  • Author: Milica Popovic x
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Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study of the Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular Anterior Teeth in Serbian Population


The aim of this study is to describe the morphological characteristics, the number of roots and number of root canals of mandibular central incisors, lateral incisors and canines, and the relationship of these characteristics with the sex and the jaw side where the tooth is located, in the Serbian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

CBCT images of a total of 902 mandible front teeth, including 296 central incisors, 294 lateral incisors and 312 canines were analyzed in the database. For assessing the morphology of the root canal, Vertucci method of classification was used.

Central incisors had two canals in 27%, similar as lateral incisor which had two canals in 26.5%. Mandibular canines had two canals in 7.1% and there was a significant difference between genders. The most prevalent root canal configuration type in all mandibular anterior teeth was type I. In the groups of mandibular incisors with two root canals the most common was type III. In the group of mandibular canines with two root canals, type V had the greatest occurrence.

Most mandibular anterior teeth had one root canal. Two root canals were found in 27% of the mandibular incisors. There is a significant difference in root morphology between genders. It is important for dental practitioner to expect different morphological variations when performing endodontic treatment. More studies are needed to further define morphological characteristics of roots of mandibular anterior teeth in Serbian population.

Open access
The Surgical Management of Gardner Syndrome Manifestation in the Maxillofacial Region: A Case Report


Gardner syndrome is a rare autosomal-dominant genetic disorder, considered a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is characterized by intestinal polyposis and various bone and soft-tissue tumors, including osteomas, epidermal and dermal cysts, lipomas and fibromas. Intestinal polyps have high potential to become malignant, and the screening of intestinal lesions is mandatory. Maxillofacial manifestations, such as jaw osteomas, odontomas, dental abnormalities and soft tissue tumors frequently precede the intestinal manifestations. Thus, maxillofacial surgeons and dental practitioners may have important role in early detection of Gardner syndrome. In this case report we present a 22 year old male patient who was reffered to maxillofacial surgeon due to osteoma of the mandible. After obtaining clinical and radiological examinations, as well as data from family history, Gardner syndrome was suspected, which was later confirmed after gastroenterological examination.

Open access
Efficiency of XP Endo Shaper (XPS) and Irrigation Protocol on the Quality of Cleaning the Apical Third of Root Canal: SEM Study


Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of new rotary NiTi instrument XP- endo SHAPER (XPS) used with two irrigation protocols on the root canal cleaning in the apical area.

Material and Methods: The research was conducted on 30 single-rooted teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons which were divided into the two groups. Instrumentation of the canals was conducted with XPS instrument and 2% solution of NaOCl was used as irrigant. Instrumentation in the first group was performed using a conventional continuous irrigation, in the second group, protocol of final irrigation was performed intermittently in 3 cycles. The SEM analysis of the apical third of the canal was performed on longitudinal root cross-section standardized photomicrography with a magnification of 2000X.

Results: Results showed that a thicker smear layer was observed in the first group and with continuous irrigation protocol (2,10) in relation to the intermittent irrigation protocol in 3 cycles (1,96), but without significant differences.The walls of the root canal in the apical third of the samples of the second group were slightly cleaner (73.3%) in comparison with the teeth of the first group (64, 7%), but also without significant differences.

Conclusions: The use of XPS and 2% solution of NaOCl in the root canal enables efficient cleaning of the apical third of tooth. The final irrigation protocol in three cycles improves the efficiency of the smear layer removal in the apical segment of the canal.

Open access
Seasonal diversity of biodeteriogenic, pathogenic, and toxigenic constituents of airborne mycobiota in a sacral environment


The main purpose of this study was to isolate airborne fungi and assess seasonal variations in air contamination with their particulates by determining the levels of their propagules in the nave and exonarthex of a church. We also monitored indoor microclimate as a determining factor for fungal proliferation on wall paintings, spore release, and transmission through the air. The temperature and relative humidity of the nave favoured fungal growth. A total of 33 fungi were isolated, mainly of the phylum Ascomycota, and to the lesser extent of the phyla Zygomycota and Basidiomycota. The most common were the fungi of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus (23.55 % and 20.58 %, respectively). Sørensen’s quotient of similarity (0.37) suggests moderate species overlap and constant exchange of fungal propagules between the nave and exonarthex. The autumn had the highest diversity, with 17 documented taxa, followed by the summer and the winter. The spring had only eight taxa. Quantitative analysis of the airborne mycobiota in the nave (430±84.85 to 1880±106.07 CFU m-3) and exonarthex (715±59.62 to 2295±91.92 CFU m-3) showed very high contamination throughout the year, with values exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations by most standards. Many of the fungi determined in this study are known for their biodeteriogenic, toxigenic, and allergenic properties, and are a threat not only to occasional visitors and staff, but also to valuable works of art decorating nave walls.

Open access