The composition of water used for irrigation has a significant impact on the production characteristics of the land, yield and irrigation equipment, and therefore its analysis, or assessment of the usability of irrigation water is very important. In this paper, the potential impact of the waters of the Banat watercourses of Moravica, Karaš and Nera is assessed on the basis of monthly water samples from the measuring stations of Vatin, Dobričevo and Kusić, for the period of April-September from the year 2007 to 2017. The assessment was carried out using the classification of irrigation water: FAO, USLL and water categorization according to Nejgebauer, and the Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI). For the needs of these classifications, a total of 20 water parameters were analyzed: quality, physical, chemical and biological parameters. According to all the classifications, the analyzed watercourses can be a good source of water for irrigation in terms of its quality, but with control and appropriate measures, in particular, the presence of bicarbonate, but also the ratio of Na+ to Ca2+ and Mg2+.
In the light of climate changes and in order to achieve stable crop production, irrigation represents an inevitable measure. Apart from water quantity, water quality represents a matter of concern. The paper elaborates on the presence of iron and manganese, as the main factors of causing the clogging of irrigation systems. The examined well water samples were taken mainly from Serbia. Photometric methods were applied for determining iron and manganese, and sensors for pH and conductivity. The obtained values were later subjected to a classification for irrigation water and the well water samples were classified according to the given thresholds. Precise location and presentation of the obtained results were done using the Geographic information system. The research has shown that from the analysed well water, only in 6 samples iron concentrations were increased up to a level classified as “extreme restrictions,” 4 samples as “warning,” while 31 samples of water were “adequate for irrigation.” Concerning manganese, in only one sample water was classified as “extreme restrictions,” in 14 as “warning” and in 26 as “adequate for irrigation.” pH and conductivity did not coincide with elevated concentrations of iron and manganese, but in the cases of exceeding thresholds, special attention should also be paid to these parameters.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether green tea extract has beneficial effect on gentamicin-induced acute renal failure. The investigation was conducted on thirty-two Wistar rats divided into four groups of 8 animals each. Control (C) group received normal saline. GT group received green tea extract orally, 300mg/kg. GM group received gentamicin intraperitoneally, 100mg/kg and GT+GM group received both gentamicin and green tea extract.
Histological sections of kidney in GM group revealed necrosis of proximal tubules, vacuolization of cytoplasm and massive mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates in interstitium. Coadministration of green tea with gentamicin had renoprotective effect and showed only mild infiltrations, normal glomeruli and alleviated tubular degeneration. Analysis of biochemical parameters showed significantly higher urea and creatinine serum concentrations in GM group in comparison with C group and GT+GM group (p<0.001). Plasma lipid peroxidation biomarker MDA was significantly higher in GM group than those in C group (p<0.001), whereas the values for GT+GM group were significantly lower than MDA recorded for GM group (p<0.001).
Beneficial effects of green tea on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity is explained through decrease of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.Our results indicate that green tea administration has nephroprotective effect on oxidative stress and acute renal failure caused by gentamicin.
The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of co-treatment with vitamins C and E on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to quantify renal structural changes through morphometric analysis. Experiments were done on 24 Wistar rats divided into three groups of 8 animals each. The GM group animals were treated with gentamicin in the dose of 100 mg/kg. The GMEC group received both vitamin E in the dose of 100 mg/kg and vitamin C in the dose of 200 mg/kg together with gentamicin. The control group received normal saline. We confirmed nephrotoxicity in the GM group of rats by increased concentrations of creatinine and urea, altered parameters of oxidative stress (CAT, MDA, AOPP) and histopathological analysis of renal sections. Morphometric analysis showed increased glomerular basement membrane thickness and significant changes of glomerular and tubular parameters in the GM group. Analysis of parameters of oxidative stress showed that vitamins C and E significantly attenuated nephrotoxic effect of gentamicin; in addition, histological and morphometric analysis showed reduced histopathological damages of renal structures in the GMCE group. This study indicated that vitamins C and E could provide a significant protective effect against gentamicin-induced morphological and functional kidney alterations.
Failure of passive transfer (FPT) of immunoglobulins (IgG) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality of calves. In this study we evaluated the digital Brix refractometer usefulness for the assessment of FPT. A number of 16 colostrum samples from the first milking (2-3h post-partum) of Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers and 29 blood sera of 3-6 days old calves were analyzed with a digital Brix refractometer. Total proteins were determined by the biuret reaction. Colostral IgG were determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and colostral whey and blood serum γ globulin (composed almost entirely of IgG) were determined by agarose protein gel electrophoresis (APE) and densitometry. Colostral % Brix score was 25.5±3.4%. Concentrations of colostrum IgG and colostral whey γ globulin were 130±33 g/L and 100±24 g/L respectively. The concentration of total proteins in colostral whey was 134±30 g/L. The correlations between Brix values and the concentrations of IgG determined with RID and the concentrations of γ globulin determined with APE were positive and highly significant (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The concentration of serum proteins of new-born calves was 57.75±11.8 g/L, the concentration of γ globulin was 14.4±7.8 g/L, and the Brix score was 8.6±1.0%. FPT (serum γ globulin<10 g/L) was detected in 34.5% (10/29) calves. Brix score correlated with the concentration of blood serum γ globulins in all examined calves. The results have confirmed that digital Brix refractometry allows the producers to use this technique in order to estimate colostral and calf serum IgG, thereby monitoring both colostrum quality and success of passive transfer.
The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate whether soluble programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) are potential diagnostic, predictive or prognostic biomarkers in lung cancer.
Lung cancer patients (n=115) with advanced metastatic disease, 101 with non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC (77 EGFR wild-type NSCLC patients on chemotherapy, 15 EGFR mutation positive adenocarcinoma patients, 9 patients with mPD-L1 Expression ≥50% NSCLC – responders to immunotherapy), and 14 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were examined. ELISA method was used to determine sPD-L1 and SAA1 concentrations in patients’ plasma.
Significantly higher blood concentrations of sPD-L1 and SAA1 were noted in lung cancer patients compared with a healthy control group. In PD-L1+ NSCLC patients, a significantly higher sPD-L1 level was noticed compared to any other lung cancer subgroup, as well as the highest average SAA1 value compared to other subgroups.
It seems that sPD-1/PD-L1 might be a potential biomarker, prognostic and/ or predictive, particularly in patients treated with immunotherapy. Serum amyloid A1 has potential to act as a good predictor of patients’ survival, as well as a biomarker of a more advanced disease, with possibly good capability to predict the course of disease measured at different time points.
Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside) and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80). Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value. Performed characterization (polarized light microscopy, pH, electrical conductivity, rheological, FTIR and DSC measurements) indicated a formulation containing glycereth- 7-caprylate/caprate as suitable for incorporation of both drugs, whereas alkyl polyglucoside-based systems did not exhibit satisfying solubilization capacity for sertaconazole nitrate. Further, monitored parameters were strongly affected by sertaconazole nitrate incorporation, while they remained almost unchanged in adapalene-loaded vehicles. In addition, results of the in vivo skin performance study supported acceptable tolerability for all investigated formulations, suggesting selected microemulsions as promising carriers worth exploring further for effective skin delivery of model drugs.