Agriculture of the Republic of Serbia is a significant economic branch, due to the specifics of production, tradition and because of the enormous potential that it holds for improving competitive performance and development of the national economy. For this reason, in all strategic documents agriculture is recognised as a vital branch for the development of the national economy, which can be achieved by an increase in productivity and greater foreign exchange, especially with the neighbouring countries. Bearing in mind that agricultural food products represent a very important part of foreign trade of the Republic of Serbia with the countries of the Western Balkans, the goal of the research is to point out the comparative advantages of the Republic of Serbia in the exchange of agricultural and food products with the countries in the region, by applying the Balassa index. The realisation of the principal objective of the research was carried out using the methods of comparative advantage, historical method, trends method, methods of analysis and synthesis. The results of research show that the Republic of Serbia has distinct comparative advantages in relation to the countries in the Western Balkans, with the exception of the Republic of Croatia. The key contribution of this paper lies in providing a clearer insight into the comparative advantages of the Republic of Serbia in foreign trade with the countries in the region, as well as pointing out the priority directions of activities of competent authorities in order to intensify. the agricultural export, especially high quality and products at a higher level of processing.
Milica Kostović, Milica Cvetkovic and Dejan Petrovic
Gastrointestinal complications are common among patients on peritoneal dialysis. Risk factors for the development of gastrointestinal complications in this patient population include: toxic effects of uremic toxins, frequent use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Helicobacter pylori infection, angiodysplasia, increased intra-abdominal pressure, use of bioincompatible solution for peritoneal dialysis, increased glucose in solutions for peritoneal dialysis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (hypercalcemia), a disorder of lipid metabolism (hypertriglyceridemia), and the duration of peritoneal dialysis treatment. The most important non-infectious gastrointestinal complications in patients on peritoneal dialysis are: gastrointestinal bleeding, herniation and leaking of the dialysate from the abdomen (increased intra-abdominal pressure), impaired lung function (intra-abdominal hypertension), acute pancreatitis, and encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum. Intra-abdominal hypertension is defined as IAP ≥ 12 mmHg. Pouring the peritoneal dialysis solution leads to increased intra-abdominal pressure, which results in the development of hernias, pleuro-peritoneal dialysate leakage (hydrothorax), and restrictive pulmonary dysfunction. Risk factors for the development of acute pancreatitis in this patient population include: uraemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia, hypertriglyceridemia, features of the peritoneal dialysis solution (osmolarity, acidity, glucose, chemical irritation, and calcium in the solution for peritoneal dialysis lead to “local hypercalcemia”), toxic substances from the dialysate, the bags and tubing, and peritonitis and treatment of peritonitis with antibiotics and anticoagulants. Encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum is rare and is the most serious complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis. It is characterized by thickening of the peritoneum, including cancer, and signs and symptoms of obstructive ileus. Diagnosis is based on clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters. Encapsulating sclerosis of the peritoneum can be indicated by an AR-CA-125 concentration of less than 33 U/min and a concentration of AR-IL-6 greater than 350 pg/min in the effluent of patients with ultrafiltration weakness. Treatment consists of stopping peritoneal dialysis, using anti-inflammatory (corticosteroids) and anticicatricial drugs (tamoxifen), while surgical treatment includes enterolysis and adhesiolysis.