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  • Author: Milena Nikolova x
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Milena Nikolova, Mariya Petrova and Ely Zayova

Abstract

Arnica montana L. is an endangered species rich in sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids with high pharmaceutical value. The polyphenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of plants that had passed all stages of cultivation: micropropagation and rooting (in vitro), adaptation in greenhouse (ex vitro) and mountain conditions (in vivo) were evaluated. Four surface flavonoid aglycones [scutellarein 6-methyl ether (hispidulin), scutellarein 6,4’-dimethyl ether (pectolinarigenin), 6-OH luteolin 6-methyl ether and kempferol-6-methyl ether] were detected in the acetone exudates of the studied samples bymeans of thin layer chromatography.No differences in the accumulation of surface flavonoids were found among the tested leaf extracts of in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo samples. However, the extracts from the flowers were richer in surface flavonoids than extracts from the leaves. The methanol extracts of the samples from ex vitro and in vivo grown A. montana plants had significantly higher radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic content than the extracts of in vitro samples. The observed differences in the contents of these biologically active compounds were related to different growth conditions and stages of plant development. The biotechnological method of A. montana established holds promise for the future production of antioxidants.

Open access

Milena Nikolova, R. Krasteva, B. Bogov, T. Tsocheva, Vi. Milenova, K. Petkov and N. Chernev

Abstract

Horseshoe kidney is an inborn renal fusion anomaly. It is frequently associated with renal stones and infections. The diagnosis is made using imaging methods - ultrasound, X-ray of the abdomen and intravenous pyelography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide investigations. The diagnosis sometimes is hard, especially when other abnormalities are present, i.e. hydronephrosis, nephrolithiasis, stenosis of the ureteropelvic junction, etc. The authors present a male patient with horseshoe kidney and unilateral hydronephrosis due to obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction and discuss the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and the diagnostic approach in such patients.

Open access

M. Nikolova, Vl. Milenova, D. Yosifov, Y. Vlahov and V. Tenev

Abstract

Cocaine is a natural alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the South American plant Erythroxylum coca or synthesized chemically. After cannabis, it is the second most frequently abused recreational substance worldwide. Cocaine can affect every tissue and organ within the human body, including the kidneys, causing tissue ischemia due to vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction and damage, procoagulant activity and oxidative stress with subsequent ischemic infarctions and fibrosis. The renal changes in cocaine abuse and addiction are due to rhabdomyolysis, ischemic, hypertensive, and inflammatory changes with the development of cell proliferation and fibrosis. The authors present three patients with cocaine-associated renal damage and discuss the underlying mechanisms of cocaine-induces tissue changes.

Open access

M. Nikolova, N. Guerguinova, T. Tsocheva, D. Vasilieou, M. Hristova, N. Hubanov, V. Papazov, Al. Kirilov, V. Mushekov, E. Manov, Y. Vlahov, V. Bogdanova, K. Petkov, K. Davidov, D. Yosifov, D. Ivanova, R. Krasteva and B. Bogov

Abstract

Rhabdomyolysis (RM) is defined as striate muscle-cell damage with disintegration of skeletal muscles and release of intracellular constituents to the circulation, with or without subsequent kidney injury. RM is one of the leading causes of acute kidney injury and is associated with substantial morbidity. The major signs of acute kidney injury in rhabdomyolysis are: pain, weakness and swelling of the injured muscle or muscle groups and myoglobinuria with reddish discoloration of the urine and decrease in urine output to anuria. The authors describe three cases of rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury and discuss the current knowledge on the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of this condition.