Both in theory and practice, great attention is paid to the analysis of the pension expenditures level, their determinants, as well as the options for their reduction, whereas the analysis of the revenues level and contributions, as the most significant revenue in contribution-based pension systems, is often neglected. The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of the level of contributions for pension and disability insurance in order to identify options for increasing their levels in the pension system of the Republic of Serbia. By using the comparative method, a comparative analysis of data about the trends of the most significant determinants of contribution levels among the European Union Member States and Serbia is performed. Research results have shown that increase in the contribution level for pension and disability insurance in the Republic of Serbia can be achieved by extending the definition of contribution base of employees, increasing the average effective retirement age and increasing the effective population coverage by this insurance. In addition to pointing out the options for increasing the contribution level for pension and disability insurance, the authors also propose the measures which can be applied in order to affect the increase of the contribution level for this insurance and, therefore, the total revenues level of the pension system of the Republic of Serbia.
INTRODUCTION Oxidative stress represents a significant risk factor for the accelerated development of atherosclerosis in a population of patients on regular hemodialysis. Oxidative stress induced by hemodialysis can be triggered with both the bioincompatibility of dialysis membrane and increased endotoxin concentration in a hemodialysis solution.
AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the parameters of oxidative stress, microinflammation, nutrition, secondary hyperparathyroidism and carotid artery intima-media thickness in patients on regular hemodialysis.
METHODS One hundred and twenty five patients treated with standard hemodialysis and on-line hemodiafiltration with “high-flux” polysulfone dialysis membrane were examined. The following parameters of oxidative stress were measured : index of lipid peroxidation - measured as TBARS, nitric oxide in the form of nitrite - NO2-, super oxide anion radical - O2- and hydrogen peroxide - H2O2, catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione activity. For statistical analysis of results, the following tests were used: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Spirman test and the Pearson correlation test.
RESULTS Oxidative stress affects atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries in patients treated with regular hemodialysis and online hemodiafiltration. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between H2O2 concentration and the thickness of the carotid arteries` intima-media. High statistically significant positive correlation was found between TBARS concentration and carotid arteries intima-media thickness, while a high statistically significant negative correlation was found between SOD activity and a carotid artery intima-media thickness. There is a statistically significant negative correlation between the serum albumin and prealbumin concentration and a carotid artery intima-media thickness.
CONCLUSION Oxidative stress may be a significant risk factor for the carotid artery atherosclerosis development in patients treated with regular hemodialysis.
The strong association among the risk of coronary artery diseases (CAD), high levels of LDL-C and low levels of HDLC is well established. Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and causes endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. In this study, we ascertained the influence of statins on the atherogenic index, as an indicator and a significant adjunct for predicting atherosclerosis in hyperhomocysteinaemic male Wistar albino rats. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed with one of the following diets (Mucedola SRL., Milan, Italy): standard rodent chow; a diet enriched in methionine with no deficiency in B vitamins or a diet enriched in methio-nine and deficient in B vitamins. The animals were simultaneously exposed to a pharmacology treatment with atorvastatin at dose of 3 mg/kg/day i.p. or simvastatin, at dose of 5 mg/kg/day i.p. We measured weight gain, food intake, and FER and determined the concentrations of biochemical parameters of dyslipidaemia (TC, TGs, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), AI, and CRR. A histopathological examination was conducted on portions of the right and left liver lobes from each animal. A connection between Hhcy and dyslipidaemia was indicated by the findings of biochemical and histological analyses, suggesting that Hhcy was a pro-atherogenic state. An improvement in the lipid profile along with a decrease in the atherogenic index by statins suggests that atorvastatin and simvastatin could be useful antiatherogenic agents, with protective activities during hyperhomocysteinaemia.