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Open access

Pavel Broz, Daniel Rajdl, Jaroslav Novak, Milan Hromadka, Jaroslav Racek, Ladislav Trefil and Vaclav Zeman

Summary

The aim of this study was to examine high-sensitivity troponin T and I (hsTnT and hsTnI) after a treadmill run under laboratory conditions and to find a possible connection with echocardiographic, laboratory and other assessed parameters. Nineteen trained men underwent a standardized 2-hour-long treadmill run. Concentrations of hsTnT and hsTnI were assessed before the run, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after the start and 24 hours after the run. Changes in troponins were tested using non-parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA). The multiple linear regression model was used to find the explanatory variables for hsTnT and hsTnI changes. Values of troponins were evaluated using the 0h/1h algorithm. Changes in hsTnT and hsTnI levels were statistically significant (p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). In a multiple regression model (adjusted R2: 0.60, p=0.005 for hsTnT and adjusted R2: 0.60, p=0.005 for hsTnI), changes in both troponins can be explained by relative left wall thickness (LV), training volume, body temperature after the run and creatinine changes. According to the 0h/1h algorithm, none of the runners was evaluated as negative. Relative LV wall thickness, creatinine changes, training volume and body temperature after the run can predict changes in hsTnT and hsTnI levels. When medical attention is needed after physical exercise, hsTn levels should be tested only when clinical suspicion and the patient’s history indicate a high probability of myocardial damage.

Open access

František Križan, Kristína Bilková, Josef Kunc, Michala Sládeková Madajová, Milan Zeman, Pavol Kita and Peter Barlík

Abstract

The shopping behaviours of teenagers in shopping centres in Bratislava (Slovakia) is compared to those of seniors in this paper. The analysis focuses on the perception of shopping centres by teenagers and seniors in the context of time (shopping frequency), social (with whom they shop) and financial (amount of money spent) factors. The survey was conducted on random samples of 504 teenagers and 431 seniors. To test the hypotheses, group means were evaluated (Analysis of Variance models). When assessing the spatial aspects of teenagers’ and seniors’ shopping behaviours, a concentric zone approach was used. It can be concluded that Bratislava teenagers are not as sensitive consumers as seniors in the context of the variables assessed in the survey. Teenagers perceive shopping centres as a normal part of their consumption behaviours. Seniors perceive the shopping centres less positively and they spent a shorter time there. Also, in the case of seniors, the frequency of their visits to shopping centres increased in the context of their positive perceptions.