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Milan Sýkora, Miloš Siblík and Ján Soták

Siliciclastics in the Upper Triassic dolomite formations of the Krížna Unit (Malá Fatra Mountains, Western Carpathians): constraints for the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Fatric Basin

The Upper Triassic carbonates of the Krížna Unit in the eastern part of the Krivánska Malá Fatra Mts contain the unique siliciclastic interbeds. They are developed between the Ramsau Dolomite Formation and the Hauptdolomite Formation, and comprise alternating dark grey shales and pale grey dolomites. Such a shaly-dolomite formation is unknown from the Upper Triassic formations of the Krížna Unit, which makes it possible to define a new lithostratigraphic unit (Tržinovo Formation). The Ramsau Dolomites beneath the Tržinovo Formation contain microfauna of Carnian foraminifers. Therefore, the Carnian age has also been constrained for the Tržinovo Formation, which by the reduced carbonate productivity and enhanced terrigenous influx could be related to the Reingraben Event. This event related to the "Carnian Pluvial Episode" is also inferred in the Tržinovo Formation by the presence of lingulide brachiopods (Lingularia) and spinicaudatan crustaceans (Euestheria). This fauna provides evidence of not fully marine conditions of the Tržinovo Formation, influenced by continental freshwater influx and humid climate.

Open access

Miroslav Sýkora and Milan Holický

Abstract

The paper is focused on the model uncertainty related to shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams without special shear reinforcement considering available test results. Variation of the model uncertainty with basic variables is analysed and significant variables are identified for the section-oriented formula provided in EN 1992-1-1. Proposed probabilistic description of the model uncertainty consists of the lognormal distribution having the coefficient of variation of 0.15 and the mean value varying from 0.9 to 1.05 for beams with light to heavy longitudinal reinforcement.

Open access

Roman Aubrecht, Štefan Méres, Milan Sýkora and Tomáš Mikuš

Provenance of the detrital garnets and spinels from the Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

According to earlier concepts, the Czorsztyn Unit (Oravic Superunit, Pieniny Klippen Belt, Western Carpathians) sedimented on the isolated Czorsztyn Swell which existed in the Middle Jurassic-Late Cretaceous time in the realm of the Outer Western Carpathians. This paper brings new data providing an alternative interpretation of its Cretaceous evolution. They are based on heavy mineral analysis of the Upper Aptian/Lower Albian sediments of the Czorsztyn Unit. They rest upon a karstified surface after a Hauterivian-Aptian emersion and are represented by condensed, red marly organodetritic limestones with some terrigenous admixture (Chmielowa Formation). The heavy mineral spectrum is dominated by spinels, followed by garnet, with lesser amounts of zircon, rutile and tourmaline. The composition of the majority of the detrital garnets shows that they were derived from primary HP/UHP parental rocks which were recrystallized under granulite and amphibolite facies conditions. The garnets were most probably derived directly from the magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the Oravic basement, as the high-pyrope garnets are known to be abundant in Mesozoic sediments all over the Outer Western Carpathians. The presence of spinels is surprising. According to their chemistry, they were mostly derived from mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORB) peridotites, supra-subduction zone peridotites (harzburgites) and transitional lherzolite/harzburgite types. Only a lesser amount of spinels was derived from volcanics of BABB composition (back-arc basin basalts). The presence of this ophiolitic detritus in the Czorsztyn Unit is difficult to explain. Ophiolitic detritus appeared in the Aptian/Albian time only in the units which were considered to be more distant, because they were situated at the boundary between the Central and the Outer Western Carpathians (Klape Unit, Tatric and Fatric domains). The hypothetical Exotic Ridge which represented an accretionary wedge in front of the overriding Western Carpathian internides was considered to be a source of the clastics. In previous paleogeographical reconstructions, the Czorsztyn Unit was situated north of the Pieniny Trough (considered to be one of the branches of the Penninic-Vahic Ocean). In the trough itself, the ophiolitic detritus appeared as late as in the Senonian and there was no way it could reach the Czorsztyn Swell which was considered to be an isolated elevation. The new results presented herein show that these reconstructions do not fit the obtained data and infer a possibility that the Czorsztyn sedimentary area was not isolated in the Cretaceous time and it was situated closer to the Central Carpathian units than previously thought. A new paleogeographical model of the evolution of the Pieniny Klippen Belt is presented in the paper: Oravic segment was derived from the Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif by the Middle Jurassic rifting which caused block tilting where most of the Oravic units were arranged north of the Czorsztyn Swell. The Oravic segment was situated in the lateral continuation of the Central and Inner Western Carpathians from which it was detached by later clockwise rotation. The Oravic segment was then laterally shifted in front of the Central Western Carpathians, together with remnants of the Meliatic suture zone which represented a source for the exotics to the Klape, Tatric, Fatric and Oravic units.

Open access

Dimitris Diamantidis, Milan Holický and Miroslav Sýkora

Abstract

The specification of risk and reliability acceptance criteria is a key issue of reliability verifications of new and existing structures. Current target reliability levels in standards appear to have considerable scatter. Critical review of risk acceptance approaches to societal, economic and environmental risk indicates that an optimal design strategy is mostly dominated by economic aspects while human safety aspects need to be verified only in special cases. It is recommended to specify the target levels considering economic optimisation and the marginal life-saving costs principle, as both these approaches take into account the failure consequences and costs of safety measures.

Open access

Milan Holický, Jana Marková and Miroslav Sýkora

Abstract

The target reliability levels recommended in national and international documents vary within a broad range, while the reference to relevant costs and failure consequences is mentioned only very vaguely. In some documents the target reliability index is indicated for one or two reference periods (1 year, 50 years or life-time) without providing appropriate links to the design working life. This contribution attempts to clarify the relationship between the target reliability levels, costs of safety measures, failure consequences, reference periods and the design working life

Open access

Miroslav Sýkora, Milan Holický and Jan Krejsa

Abstract

The submitted contribution is focused on the model uncertainty related to shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams with special shear reinforcement considering available test results. Variation of the model uncertainty with basic variables is analysed and significant variables are identified for the section-oriented formula provided in EN 1992-1-1. Proposed probabilistic description of the model uncertainty consists of the lognormal distribution having the coefficient of variation of about 0.25 and the mean significantly varying with the strength of shear reinforcement

Open access

Miroslav Sýkora, Milan Holický and Karel Jung

Abstract

Assessment of existing structures should be based on the knowledge about as-built conditions including uncertainties concerning geometry, material properties, loading and environmental conditions. A crucial step of the assessment may be the evaluation of prior information and newly obtained measurements for which Bayesian approach provides a consistent framework. Updating of probabilistic distributions of basic variables, direct updating of failure probability and combination thereof can be applied.

Open access

Jan Krejsa, Milan Holicky and Miroslav Sykora

Abstract

The submitted contribution is focused on the model uncertainty related to shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams with stirrups. Using available test results, effects of basic variables on the model uncertainty are analysed. Considering the section-oriented models provided in EN 1992-1-1 and in the new fib Model Code 2010 are critically compared. Proposed probabilistic description of the model uncertainty consists of the lognormal distribution having the mean and coefficient of variation dependent on the considered model. Strength of shear reinforcement seems to be the most important basic variable for most of the considered models.

Open access

Štefan Méres, Roman Aubrecht, Michał Gradziński and Milan Sýkora

ABSTRACT

Aubrecht, R., Meres, Š., Gradziński, M. and Sykora, M. 2012. High (ultrahigh) pressure metamorphic terrane rocks as the source of the detrital garnets from the Middle Jurassic sands and sandstones of the Cracow Region (Cracow- Wieluń Upland, Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica, 62 (2), 231-245. Warszawa. The Middle Jurassic (Upper Bathonian/Lower Callovian) sands and sandstones of the Cracow-Wieluń Upland contain detrital garnets with high contents of the pyrope molecule (30-73 mol %). The predominance of detrital pyrope garnets, and inclusions represented mainly by omphacite and kyanite, show that the garnets were derived from high (ultrahigh) pressure (H/UHP) metamorphic terrane rocks (garnet peridotites, eclogites and granulites). Their source is unknown. The Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif is closely comparable. However, the terranes between this zone and the Cracow- Wieluń Upland are dominated by almandine garnets. The relatively low proportion of almandine garnets in the examined samples indicates that transport of the detrital material could not have been from a far distant source as the garnet assemblage would otherwise be strongly dominated by almandine. A less distant possible source could have been the Gory Sowie Mts., which incorporate UHP/HP metamorphic rocks, but the exposed areal extent of these rocks is too small. It is possible that larger portions of these metamorphic rocks are buried beneath the Cenozoic cover and might have earlier represented a larger source area. Reworking of the entire heavy mineral spectra from older clastics is improbable because of the low maturity of the heavy mineral assemblages (higher proportion of less stable minerals). The source area therefore remains unknown. Most probably it was formed by primary crystalline complexes of lower crust to mantle origin, outcrops of which were not far distant from the area of deposition. Similar detrital garnet compositions were also recorded in the Outer Western Carpathians (Flysch Zone, Pieniny Klippen Belt), i.e. the crustal segments which formed the Silesian and Magura cordilleras; the Czorsztyn Swell was also formed by similar rocks.