Thermal inactivation of immobilized glucose isomerase in a concentrated glucose solution was investigated in the batch mode and temperature range of 83–95 °C, which is substantially higher than the temperature used in the industrial production of high-fructose corn syrup. Simultaneous evaluation of all inactivation data showed that first-order kinetics with the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the rate constant provided a good approximation of the biocatalyst stability under the investigated conditions. The model parameters were then used to predict the operational temperature for this biocatalyst in the production of high-fructose corn syrup based on the set operational life-time of the biocatalyst. The simulation predicted a window of operational temperature of 60–65 °C, which corresponds very well with the industrial applications of this biocatalyst. This observation demonstrates that the multi-temperature method of enzyme inactivation can provide a good estimate of biocatalyst process stability and is thus a useful tool in the development of biocatalytic processes.
A mixture of galacto-oligosaccharides and non-prebiotic sugars was separated using a simulated moving bed unit equipped with eight packed-bed columns of a cation exchanger. In order to determine operating conditions using triangle theory, equilibrium adsorption isotherms of galactose, glucose, lactose, tri- and tetragalacto-oligosaccharide were measured. It was found that each column of the SMB unit had a maximum separation efficiency of more than 3000 theoretical plates. The achieved purity of galacto-oligosaccharides in the raffinate stream was 99.9 %, similarly 99.9 % of extract was formed by non-prebiotic sugars lactose, glucose and galactose. The productivities in the raffinate and extract, were 0.6 g/(L h) and 2.4 g/(L h), respectively.
Thermal inactivation of a commercial β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae in a 300 g/L lactose solution was studied in the temperature range of 65–75 °C. Lactose exhibited a stabilisation effect when similar inactivation rates as those in lactose solution were observed in a lactose-free solution at temperatures lower by 5°C. Inactivation process in the lactose solution was biphasic. A kinetic model based on the Lumry-Eyring mechanism was proposed and successfully verified. Estimated activation energy values were very different. Rather high activation energy values of the forward reactions were responsible for both the significant change of rate constants and the rate-controlling reaction with temperature. For these two reasons, an increase of the operational lifetime of the enzyme from 7 days at 60 °C to 580 days at 55 °C was predicted.
Optimal conditions of spray drying of a fructooligosaccharide-rich mixture prepared by enzymatic conversion of sucrose were investigated. It was found that efficient drying of the mixture containing about 40 % of monosaccharides and sucrose required addition of a compound with a high glass transition temperature. The addition of maltodextrin helped to achieve satisfactory solids yield and moisture. Optimized process parameters were the feed flow rate and solids concentration, drying air flow rate and inlet temperature.
2(E)-hexenal is a green note flavour molecule that is widely used in various compositions of aromas, flavours and perfumery. As there is considerable demand for naturally produced aromas this article deals with some aspects of this C6-volatile production with regard to the selection of plant source material and reaction conditions. The following plants were tested for this purpose: runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), three (Capsicum annuum) bell pepper varieties, garden cress (Lepidium sativum), green slicing cucumber (Cucumis sativa), mung beans (Vigna mungo) and brown lentils (Lens culinaris). Selection of source material was considered on the basis of 2(E)-hexenal yield and productivity. The common bean leafs were able to produce up to 35 mg of 2(E)-hexenal/kg fresh leaves.
This work deals with the capture of human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) from a mixture of proteins in a concentrated postcultivation supernatant. Cation-exchange multimodal adsorbent Capto MMC ImpRes was selected as potential chromatographic separation material. Its equilibrium properties were investigated in batch adsorption experiments. The effect of pH in the range of 5.5—7.5 and NaCl concentration in the range of 0—300 mM on the adsorption of rhEPO and contaminant proteins was examined. Optimal conditions found in these equilibrium experiments were applied to rhEPO adsorption in a chromatographic column. Several experiments were carried out at different elution conditions to optimize the rhEPO yield and selectivity.
Biotransformation of acetophenone to R-1-phenylethanol with Pichia capsulata immobilized in Caalginate gel beads was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor stirred on an orbital shaker (300 rpm) at 25 ℃. Based on experimental data, uncoupled parameters of reaction kinetics (measurements with free cells) and diffusion coefficients (sorption method) were estimated. The model expressing the conversion of acetophenone with immobilized cells in the batch reactor consisted of mass balance equations of acetophenone and R-1-phenylethanol in the liquid and solid phases. A satisfactory agreement between the experimental and predicted values of acetophenone and R-1-phenylethanol concentrations was achieved