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Juraj Galko, Christo Nikolov, Andrej Kunca, Jozef Vakula, Andrej Gubka, Milan Zúbrik, Slavomír Rell and Bohdan Konôpka

Abstract

Six types of pheromone traps were tested between 2012 and 2014 in the High Tatra Mountains, northern Slovakia. Traps were baited with lures for attracting the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Among the tested traps, four types are commercial products; Theysohn (T-trap), Ecotrap (E-trap), Lindgren funnel trap (L-trap), BEKA trap (B-trap) and two are our newly developed models; Funnel trap (P-trap) and Cross trap (K-trap). The traps were set up on ten selected sites and tested during three growing seasons (2012, 2013 and 2014). The newly developed models were compared to the commercially available models for trapping efficiency of target pest, easy to use and impact on non-target insect species. We found that the best commercially available model is the L-trap, however the bottom of L-trap is considered too shallow resulting in an accumulation of rainwater that increases the traps attractiveness for Silphids. In our experiment, the newly developed models; P-trap and K-trap performed better compared to commercially used models. P-trap caught 28% more I. typographus and K-trap caught 57% more beetles compared to T-trap in 2014. There are additional advantages of the newly developed traps such as easy handling, good rainwater drainage, higher collection container volume, and scale marking within the collection container. The results of this study have encouraged us to patent P-trap and K-trap as utility models.

Open access

Tomáš Hlásny, Dušan Kočický, Martin Maretta, Zuzana Sitková, Ivan Barka, Milan Konôpka and Helena Hlavatá

Abstract

Changes in land cover, including deforestation, can have significant effect on watershed hydrology. We used hydrological model with distributed parameters to evaluate the effect of simulated deforestation on water balance components in the watershed Ulička (97 km2, 84.3% forest cover) located in the eastern Slovakia. Under the current land cover, average interception accounted for 21.1% of the total precipitation during the calibration period 2001-2013. Most of the precipitation (77%) infiltrated into the soil profile, and less than half of this amount percolated into the ground water aquifer. The surface runoff accounted for 1.2% of the total precipitation only, while the interflow accounted for ca. 12%. The largest proportion of the precipitation contributed to the base flow (23%). Watershed`s deforestation induced significant decrease in the interception and evapotranspiration (by 76% and 12%, respectively). At the same time, total runoff, surface runoff, interflow and base flow increased by 20.4, 38.8, 9.0 and 25.5%, respectively. Daily discharge increased by 20%. The deforestation significantly increased peak discharge induced by a simulated extreme precipitation event with the recurrence interval of 100 years. In the deforested watershed, the peak discharge was higher by 58% as compared with the current land cover. Peak discharge occurred in 432 minutes with the current land cover and in 378 minutes with deforestation, after the precipitation event had started. The presented assessment emphasized the risk of adverse effect of excessive deforestation on watershed hydrology. At the same time, the developed model allows testing the effect of other land cover scenarios, and thus supports management in the investigated watershed.

Open access

Andrej Kunca, Milan Zúbrik, Juraj Galko, Jozef Vakula, Roman Leontovyč, Bohdan Konôpka, Christo Nikolov, Andrej Gubka, Valéria Longauerová, Miriam Maľová, Peter Kaštier and Slavomír Rell

Abstract

Salvage felling is one of the indicators of the forest health quality and stability. Most of the European Union countries monitor forest harmful agents, which account for salvage felling, in order to see trends or functionality between factors and to be able to predict their development. The systematic evidence of forest harmful agents and volume of salvage felling in Slovakia started at the Forest Research Institute in Zvolen in 1960. The paper focuses on the occurrence of the most relevant harmful agents and volume of salvage felling in the Slovak forests over the last decade. Within the 10 years period (2004–2013) salvage felling in Slovakia reached 42.31 mil. m3 of wood, which was 53.2% of the total felling. Wind and European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus damaged 78.4% of salvage wood, i.e. they were the most important pest agents. Norway spruce (Picea abies) was the most frequently damaged tree species that represented the amount of 35.6 mil. m3 of wood (81.2% of total volume of salvage felling). As Norway spruce grows mostly in mountains, these regions of Central and Northern Slovakia were most affected. At the damaged localities new forests were prevailingly established with regard to suitable ecological conditions for trees, climate change scenarios and if possible, natural regeneration has been preferred. These approaches in forest stand regeneration together with silvicultural and control measures are assumed to gradually decrease the amount of salvage felling over long term perspective.

Open access

Andrej Kunca, Milan Zúbrik, Juraj Galko, Jozef Vakula, Roman Leontovyč, Bohdan Konôpka, Christo Nikolov, Andrej Gubka, Valéria Longauerová, Miriam Maľová, Slavomír Rell and Michal Lalík

Abstract

Global climate change also influences the forest damaging agents occurrence and thus a forest health. Forest trees that are damaged by agents are in managed forests processed by salvage felling. The amount of an annual salvage felling represents the occurrence of a damaging agents occurrence in a certain year. In 2015, the area of forests in Slovakia reached 2.014 mil. ha. Within the 20 years (from 1998 to 2017), the total felling reached 162.52 mil. m3, out of this 47.99 % were ascribed to a salvage felling. Abiotic agents were the most damaging agents (42.28 mil. m3 of damaged wood), out of it a wind was the most important one. Biotic damaging agents were the second important group (32.165 mil. m3), whereas bark beetles on spruce were the most important. The third group and the less damaging one was anthropogenic agents group (3.555 mil. m3) with an air pollution as the most important damaging agent. There was no statistically significant difference in the volume of processed trees within salvage felling caused by abiotic and biotic damaging agents. However, these two groups caused significantly higher damages than the third group of anthropogenic damaging agents. There were two major wind damages, Alžbeta in 2004 and Žofia in 2014 with damaged wood 5.3 mil. m3 and 5.2 mil. m3, respectively. They occurred in southern, central and northern part of Slovakia. As damaged wood was not processed from strict nature conservation areas, the secondary damaging agents, mostly Ips typographus on Norway spruce reproduced as much that after some years it cumulatively reached or even exceeded damages from those two major windthrows episodes.