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Open access

Štefan Žák, Milan Macák and Roman Hašana

Influence of Soil Cultivation Technologies and Fertilisation on Productivity and Energy Production of Arable Crops

The influence of three soil tillage technologies and two fertilisation levels on a productivity of crops and biomass for energy use, expressed in yield, cereal units (CU), energy acquired and indicative price of energy per hectare was evaluated at the experimental fields of Research Institute of Plant Production in Piešťany during 2007-2009. The highest yield of dry matter has been identified for maize for silage 19.41 t/ha, followed by winter oilseed rape 15.77 t/ha, triticale 15.39 t/ha and winter wheat 14.08 t/ha. Conventional tillage created soil condition for higher yield of dry matter in an average 17.92 t/ha, followed by minimum soil tillage 16.27 t/ha and no-till-age technology 14.3 t/ha. Nitrogen-based fertilisation (N120) has ensured a significantly higher yield of dry matter and a higher price of acquired energy €491.1 compared with €462.1 of zero-nitrogen fertilisation. The highest yield of cereal units has been identified for maize for silage 9.01 CU, followed by winter wheat 5.21 CU, triticale 4.70 CU and winter oilseed rape 4.55 CU. Energy of maize for silage has been calculated from biogas, winter oilseed rape from rape methyl ester, straw and crop residues, and for winter wheat and triticale from ethanol and straw. Average energy storage in plant biomass of crop rotation was 222.93 GJ/ha. The highest amount of energy acquired has been identified for winter oilseed rape 342.80 GJ/ha, followed by maize for silage with 236.99 GJ/ha, winter triticale 159.39 GJ/ha and winter wheat 152.52 GJ/ha.

Open access

Lucie Vnoučková and Milan Žák

Abstract

This paper focuses on transparency in lobbying as perceived by in sample organisations in the Czech Republic. The paper’s aim is to study how lobbying and its impact on decision-making practices are perceived by organisational representatives and to empirically assess the perceived transparency of lobbying with a view to the potential introduction of lobbying regulations and their role in Czech democracy. Data for the study was gathered from a sample of business institutions in the Czech Republic. In total, 73 organisations/institutions took part in the survey. One respondent was questioned per organisation/institution. 90 % of respondents perceive that transparent and regulated lobbying has a positive impact on democracy. Moreover, according to the respondents, lobbying facilitates more competent decision-making among politicians, brings more information into the decision-making process and makes the process more efficient. There has been a significant shift in the perception of lobbying over the past ten years in the Czech Republic. Regulations aimed at legitimizing lobbying are seen as having a positive impact on democracy.