In current time we can see worldwide rise in number of people suffering from civilization diseases, such as health threatening cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer and many others. Cereal products which provide income of important nutritional substance for human health belong among groceries with proven medical effect. Among significant components of cereals with proven effect in prevention of civilization diseases belongs roughage, β-glucans, phytochemicals. Important role also play vitamins and minerals, which are present in cereals in minor values. Article summarizes presence of medically important substances in cereals.