Ivan Kirvel, Mikhail Kukshinov, Alexander Volchek and Pavel Kirvel
The article concerns the study of the influence of river reservoirs of Belarus on the evolution of river channels in their downstream pools. On the basis of observational data from the Republican Hydrometeorological Center of the Republic of Belarus (RHMC), as well as own field observations a quantitative evaluation of the change of the main channel formation factors, the direction, horizontal and vertical parameters of deformation of the riverbeds below dams has been performed. Changes in the type of channel processes for the regulated parts of rivers have also been assessed. It has been found that the investigated reservoirs accumulate up to 65% of the sediment transported by the river in a suspended state. Restoration of the water turbidity to values close to the natural regime occurs at a distance of 20 km downstream from a dam of small reservoirs, and up to 50 km downstream from a dam in the case of medium-sized reservoirs. The degree of the riverbed deformations downstream from a reservoir is defined by the geological and lithologic structure of the channel bottom deposits. If there are easily washed sand deposits at the bottom, then the dominant process is deep erosion. If sediments are more heterogenic with increased admixture of gravel-pebble material the development of directed deep erosion is reduced. The change of the existing type of channel processes of regulated rivers is due to the imbalance between the main factors of channel formation in the initial period of the operation of new water-engineering systems (5-7 years). The observed changes are typical of rivers with sandy riverbed.
The article is dedicated to the problem of the transformation of rivers’ temperature conditions influenced by artificial reservoirs. A quantitative estimation of average water temperatures over ten days, and maximum and average annual water temperatures of regulated rivers downstream of reservoirs was made on the basis of the data analysis of a complete period of instrumental observations of the Republican Hydrometeorological Centre of the Republic of Belarus. It is established that the character and the parameters of the transformation of temperature conditions of the regulated rivers along with morphometric features of the reservoirs are determined by the meteorological conditions of the year and the operating conditions of the water-engineering system. The length of the cooling period effect varies from 20 days downstream of small reservoirs to 50-70 days downstream of small and average size reservoirs. The warming effect is less significant by temperature, but lasts longer and is appreciable around 200-240 days in a year. An increase in the average annual water temperature up to 0.5°C and a decrease in maximum temperature down to 1.1°C are observed in the tail-water of average size storage pools. Small size storage pools demonstrate an annual increase in annual water temperature up to 0.3°C and a decrease in maximum temperature down to 0.3°C. Small size water pools show an increase both in annual water temperature up to 0.5°C and maximum water temperature up to 0.3°C. Typical changes in temperature conditions of rivers are observed for a distance of 130 kilometres below the dam of average size water pools, along 70 kilometres in small water pools and along 30 kilometres in tiny ones.