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  • Author: Mihai Sandulescu x
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Anatomic patterns of maxillary sinus drainage

Abstract

Background. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery may be indicated when certain anatomic variations impede the normal drainage of the paranasal sinuses through the ostiomeatal complex. We aimed at studying the drainage system of the maxillary sinus which consists of the maxillary infundibulum, the main ostium of the maxillary sinus, the ethmoidal infundibulum and the hiatus semilunaris inferior.

Material and methods. The study was performed retrospectively on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 60 subjects (N=120 maxillary sinuses). The anatomical pattern of the maxillary sinus drainage was studied on coronal scans.

Results. As related to different morphological possibilities in the supero-lateral limit of the maxillary sinus drainage system, five different patterns were defined: in type I (55%) there was no pneumatization in that situs, in type II (18%) there was an infraorbital recess of the maxillary sinus placed above the sinus ostium, in type III (14%) an ethmoidal recess of the maxillary sinus was expanded within the ethmoid bone, above the ethmoidal infundibulum, in type IV (3%) there were Haller cells above the sinus ostium, while in type V (10%) there were non-infraorbital ethmoid air cells above and draining into the ethmoidal infundibulum.

Conclusion. It appears that CBCT is a reliable tool to make an anatomical distinction of the variable pattern of pneumatization impeding a normal drainage of the maxillary sinus, between maxillary sinus- and ethmoid-derived air-filled spaces.

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Bilateral infraorbital maxillary air cells: recess-derived non-Haller cells

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The infraorbital recess of the maxillary sinus can reach in front of the nasolacrimal duct to become prelacrimal recess. During a routine Cone Beam CT (CBCT) study of a male patient of 72 years old, there were bilaterally found infraorbital maxillary air cells (IMACs) resulted after the almost complete closure of infraorbital recesses of the maxillary sinuses. Only that on the left side was reaching in front of the nasolacrimal canal. The closure of each infraorbital recess leaded to a narrow draining passage opened in the terminal end of the maxillary infundibulum, thus proximal to the maxillary sinus ostium. On the left side, a small cell of the lacrimal bone was interposed between the IMAC drainage pathway and the nasolacrimal canal. On the right side, the nasolacrimal canal was communicating with the ethmoidal infundibulum. Such an anatomic variation in the infraorbital angle of the maxillary sinus can impede the endoscopic procedures which use the anterior lacrimal pathway.

Open access
Variations of sphenoid pneumatization: a CBCT study

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The pneumatization pattern of the sphenoid sinus seems rather unpredictable, as resulted from previous studies. It is however extremely important for endoscopic approaches to target structures of the middle cranial fossa, such as the pituitary gland.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We aimed at documenting by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) the possibilities of anatomic variation of the sphenoid sinus. 25 randomly selected patients were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS. In 56%, the left and right sphenoidal sinuses were bilaterally symmetrical with respect to the sagittal pneumatization type: four patients had sellar types, one had presellar type and in nine cases the sphenoidal sinuses were reaching posteriorly to the sella turcica. Only in 8% of cases were found conchal types of pneumatization, but they were part of anatomical pictures including Onodi air cells. Such an Onodi cell presented a posterior (sphenoidal) recess reaching posteriorly and superiorly to the pterygopalatine fossa. The recesses of the sphenoid sinus were also documented: anterior or septal, ethmoidal, maxillary, clinoidal and lateral. In 32% was found a lateral recess only engaged between the vidian and maxillary nerve canals.

CONCLUSION. It appears that CBCT is a reliable tool for accurate anatomic identification of the sphenoid sinus pneumatization pattern, on a case-by-case basis.

Open access
Sphenoidal and ethmoidal sinoliths

Abstract

Sinoliths are rarely found calculi of paranasal sinuses. The most rarely they were found in the sphenoidal sinuses. At a routine Cone Beam CT exam of a 52-year-old male patient clinically silent small sinoliths were found bilaterally in the sphenoidal sinuses and a larger posterior ethmoidal sinolith was found on the right side. To our knowledge, such multiple sinuses involvement has not been previously reported.

Open access