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Open access

Mihai Bogdan Nicolcioiu, Gabriela Popa and Florentina Matei

Abstract

Among bioactive constituents occurring in mushrooms, phenolic compounds focus attention due to their antioxidant activity. Also, a special attention is given to mushrooms secreting extra cellular enzymes such as lignin peroxidases (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lac), enzymes which can be used in biodegradation processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate ten mushroom species for total phenolic compounds, lignocellulolytic enzymes and for their synthetic dyes decolourisation potential. For this purpose, 70% ethanol extracts of ten dried mushrooms were analysed using spectrophotometric methods. The results revealed that total phenolic compounds in the extracts were the highest in A. campestris, P. ostreatus var. Florida and T. versicolor. Laccase activity showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus var. Florida, A. campestris, L. edodes, and G. applanatum. Lignin peroxidases (LiP) activity showed high values in extracts from A. campestris, F. velutipes, P. ostreatus var. Florida and T. versicolor, whereas manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity was highest in extracts from P. ostreatus var. Florida, A. campestris and G. applanatum. It was found that some of the fungal extracts showed high activities in decolorizing of synthetic dyes.

Open access

Mihai Păunică, Alexandru Manole, Cătălina Motofei and Gabriela Lidia Tănase

Abstract

In this paper, the authors aim to realize an in-depth analysis of the current characteristics of the globalization phenomenon from the viewpoint of the European Union and Romanian economy. The study will pursue some of the globalization indicators published by Eurostat, their status and a multidimensional perspective on their evolution. Namely, the foreign trade, the foreign direct investments, the employment, value added shall be subjected to analysis. The authors will apply statistical and econometric techniques to outline the behavior of economic globalization, depending on the values and dynamics of the support indicators. The structural and dynamic evaluation shall consider the main aspect of the multi-dimensional perspective, the geographical dimension. Both statistical and econometric tools applied lead to a set of conclusions, either general or subject-oriented, which show the present impact and trends of globalization in the European Union and Romanian economic activity. The research question was focused on how strong is the influence of globalization indicators on the economic growth for European Union and Romania. The results outline the behavior of the globalization indicators in the recent period, with focus on the effects of the economic crisis. The main indicators considered were the net export, import, export and the foreign direct investments, and their impact of the Gross Domestic Product is also revealed.

Open access

Anca Gabriela Bădescu, C. Tica and Larisia Mihai

Abstract

Vesicoureteral reflux is characterized by the retrograde flow of urine from the bladder to the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may be associated with urinary tract infection, hydronephrosis, and abnormal kidney development (renal dysplasia). Hydronephrosis - literally “water inside the kidney” - refers to distension and dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyces, usually caused by obstruction of the free flow of urine from the kidney. Untreated, it leads to progressive atrophy of the kidney. In cases of hydroureteronephrosis, there is distention of both the ureter and the renal pelvis and ureteres.

However, in the current era, hydronephrosis that is evident on fetal ultrasonography often heralds a ureteral abnormality. Hydronephrosis is defined as dilatation of the renal pelvis and/or calyces. Vesicoureteral reflux may present before birth as prenatal hydronephrosis, an abnormal widening of the ureter or with a urinary tract infection or acute pyelonephritis.

The authors present a case of bilateral VUR of IVth grade associated with congenital hydronephrosis of IIIrd grade, diagnosed before birth with bilateral hydronephrosis, and taken into evidence at 2 months when he was first diagnosed with urinary tract infection. Positive diagnosis was facilitated by laboratory investigations (urine analysis, urine culture, voiding cystourethrography, static renal scintigraphy).

Open access

Gasparik Andrea Ildiko, Mihai Gabriela and Paşcanu Ionela Maria

Abstract

Sarcopenia, or age-related muscle loss is emerging as a major public health concern. A reduced quality of life (QoL) due to impaired physical performance associated with this disease has been evidenced in these individuals. Generic instruments, such as Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36), do not accurately assess the impact of sarcopenia on QoL. SarQol (Sarcopenia Quality of Life) questionnaire, was the first disease-specific questionnaire addressing quality of life in patients with sarcopenia and has been recently designed for providing a global picture on quality of life in community-dwelling elderly subjects aged 65 years and older. Our aim was the translation and cultural adaptation of the original SarQol, to finally obtain a highly reliable instrument for the assessment of the quality of life of Romanian patients, affected by sarcopenia. We followed the recommended process, the international protocol of translation. The pretest process involved 20 subjects (10 sarcopenic and 10 non sarcopenic with different educational and socioeconomic backgrounds) who were asked to complete the questionnaire. Feedbacks were requested from all subjects regarding the clearness of questions, difficulties in completing the test or understanding the meaning of questions. Using the recommended best practice protocol for translation, the pre-final version is comparable with the original instrument in terms of content and accuracy. After the validation of psychometric properties, it should be a useful tool to assess Quality of Life and sarcopenia among elderly romanian patients.

Open access

Al. Raul Pop, Viorel Miclaus, Simona Ciupe, Gabriela Mutiu, Mihai Borzan, Vasile Rus, Horia Matei and Ioan S. Groza

Abstract

The research was conducted on a number of 24 sexually mature male rabbits of common breed, divided into two numerically equal groups. The subjects from the experimental group were given 20 mg/kg nandrolone decanoate, intramuscularly, twice a week for four consecutive weeks. The control group did not receive any treatment. At the end of the experiment the testes were harvested through bilateral orchiectomy and processed for carrying out histopathological investigations. Testicular fragments were fixated in Stieve’s mixture for 24 hours, dehydrated with alcohol, clarified with butyl alcohol and included in paraffin. Serial sections of 5 μ thickness were stained by Masson's trichrome method modified by Goldner. The testes taken from the control animals showed no detectable changes in optical microscopy. In the case of the animals belonging to experimental lots, there were alterations revealed evidenced by vacuolar dystrophy in the spermatocytes and spermatids, apoptosis, the edema of sperm head, spermatids syncytialization and cell necrosis followed by the disintegration of the seminal cell line with the formation of cellular debris in the seminiferous tubules lumen. These changes have affected part of the seminal cell line from the adluminal compartment (primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoids), but not those from the basal compartment (type A1 and B spermatogonia), which proved to be resistant in the conditions of 30 days exposure, at a dose of 20 mg/kg. In this context spermatogenesis is affected only for the period of drug action, but the risk of nandrolone decanoate transmission to humans through animal origin food consumption remains, with negative consequences on the spermatogenesis.

Open access

Monica Goia-Socol, Ileana Duncea, Gabriela Roman, Mihai-Andrei Goia-Socol, Daniel-Corneliu Leucuţa and Carmen Emanuela Georgescu

Abstract

Background and aims: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) represents a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Our aim was to determine bone mineral density (BMD) changes in a group of young Romanian adults with T1DM and to analyze the factors related to this disease that could have had an impact on bone mass. Material and Methods: Fifty-two young patients with T1DM were compared to 37 healthy volunteers matched for body mass index (BMI). All subjects had their BMD measured at the hip and lumbar spine. Results: We found no statistically significant differences in BMD between T1DM patients and controls (p=0.618 for lumbar spine, p=0.974 for femoral neck and p=0.883 for total hip). Multiple linear regression models detected BMI (p =0.043), smoking (p=0.001) and milk intake (p=0.004 for lumbar spine) as significant BMD determinants. In contrast, no associations were found between BMD and metabolic control, daily insulin dose or presence of diabetic retinopathy and/or neuropathy. Long diabetes duration was negatively associated with BMD in femoral neck (p=0.012). Conclusions: Although we couldn’t find differences between BMD in T1DM patients and controls, the link between diabetes duration and BMD that we found suggests that even young patients with long standing T1DM should have their BMD measured

Open access

Vesa Cosmin Mihai, Popa Loredana, Daina Lucia, Moisi Mădălina, Popescu Mircea, Radulian Gabriela, Timar Romulus and Popa Amorin Remus

Abstract

Insulin resistance is a determinant factor for the increased prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients. In this study we determined those modifications of clinical and biochemical parameters associated with insulin resistance in the diabetic patient, these alterations can offer us indications concerning the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the diabetes development in the case of most patients. Also we determined a correlation between insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk, through the combined effect of age and insulin resistance on this risk.

Open access

Oana Sîrbu, Victoriţa Șorodoc, Alexandra Stoica, Alexandr Ceasovchih, Mihai Constantin, Laura Huiban, Gabriela Dumitrescu, Luminiţa Vâţă and Laurenţiu Șorodoc

Abstract

Introduction. Celiac disease is a chronic bowel disease with a prevalence of 1% in the general population. This condition, immune-mediated, may exhibit multiple extra-intestinal changes, including the liver.

Case presentation. We present the case of a 43-year-old patient presenting in our clinic for fatigue, associated with cytolytic and cholestatic hepatic syndrome with an onset of 10 years. During this time, the patient performed multiple investigations with the exclusion of viral, autoimmune etiology, primitive biliary cirrhosis and Wilson's disease. An abdominal ultrasound recorded an elongated, with an infundibular septum gallbladder. Abdominal computer tomography did not detect any changes. The final diagnosis is chronic alithiasic cholecystitis receiving hepatoprotective treatment with symptom relief and improved hepatic disorders. Over the past 2 years, the patient was diagnosed with osteoporosis (T score = -2.7 followed by treatment with Calcium and Vitamin D and improvement in T score to -2.1), and an iron deficiency anemia corrected with oral iron treatment. Upon resuming the anamnesis, we notice the presence of an intermittent bloating associated with diarrhea. Positive anti-transglutaminase antibodies required upper endoscopy with biopsy witch confirmed celiac disease.

Conclusion. Despite the rather low prevalence of celiac disease in the etiology of hepatocytolysis, it is important to investigate its presence in the context of hepatic changes with uncertain etiology. This case motivates us to be rigorous in looking for secondary causes of hepatic impairment even in patients with apparently benign changes.

Open access

Adela-Gabriela Firănescu, Adina Popa, Maria-Magdalena Roşu, Diana Cristina Protasiewicz, Simona Georgiana Popa, Mihai Ioana and Maria Moța

Abstract

Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbi-mortality, about 30% of the population having a Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a threefold increased risk of developing the disease. The prevalence of DM is rapidly increasing, especially in countries with low and middle income, where TB incidence is also increased, thus baffling the efforts for TB control. The DM-TB co-epidemic is more frequent in married, older men, with reduced level of education, low income, without a steady job, with lifestyle habits such as alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentarism, living in an urban environment, in crowded areas, in insanitary conditions. These patients have a higher body mass index (BMI) compared with those without DM and frequently present family history of TB, family history of DM, longer duration of DM and reduced glycemic control. TB associated with DM is usually asymptomatic, more contagious, multidrug resistant and is significantly associated with an increased risk of therapy failure, relapse and even death. Thus, the DM-TB comorbidity represents a threat to public health and requires the implementation of urgent measures in order to both prevent and manage the two diseases.

Open access

Lorena Ciumărnean, Mihai Greavu, Ştefan C Vesa, Alina I Tanțău, Gabriela B Dogaru, Teodora G Alexescu, Mircea V Milaciu, George V Saraci, Antonia E Macarie and Ioana Para

Abstract

Introduction: Reduced serum levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities are associated with diseases involving increased oxidative stress, such as acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to determine whether serum PON1 activities are a prognostic factor for one-year survival following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Material and methods: We prospectively followed for one-year 75 patients diagnosed and treated for STEMI. Clinical, laboratory and imagistic data were gathered after coronary angiography. PON1 activities (paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lactonase) were assayed spectophotometrically on samples of heparinized plasma taken from the patients in a timeframe of maximum 20 minutes after coronary angiography.

Results: Increased mortality was linked to age (patients over 68 years), permanent atrial fibrillation or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40% (associated with global hypokinesia, apical or septal akinesia), trivascular disease atherosclerosis, reduced PON1 activities (paraoxonase <18.4 IU/mL, arylesterase <12.6 IU/mL, lactonase <27.6 IU/mL), and glomerular filtration rate levels <54 mL/min/1.73m2. Multivariate survival analysis showed the independent prognostic role of age (HR 3.92; 95%CI 1.08-14.16; p=0.03), LVEF (HR 9.93; 95%CI 2.20-44.86; p=0.003) and arylesterase (HR 4.25; 95%CI 0.94-19.18; p=0.05) for one-year mortality.

Conclusion: Reduced arylesterase activity of PON1 is an independent predictor of one-year survival after acute myocardial infarction.