Mieczysław Adamowicz and Paweł Siedlanowski
Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this work is to present contemporary trends and changes in retail trade as well as functions performed by this sector, with particular focus on large-format retail facilities. The aim of this article is to assess the state and development factors of large-format retailers in Biała Podlaska. Materials and methods: The article was created with the application of the descriptive method and based on the literature dealing with this issue and personal research. The research material was composed of the authors’ observations and a questionnaire survey conducted on the group of 100 inhabitants of Biała Podlaska. Results: The areas of retail services supplied by the retail network, distribution and mutual interaction between the main retail facilities and the development prospects of the retail network in the city were presented. Conclusions: The research confirms general changes in trade manifested by the expansion of super and hypermarkets, as well as discount stores, also in smaller cities, where chains adjust retail space to local conditions.
Mieczysław Adamowicz and Karolina Ziółkowska
Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the work is the issue related to making investment decisions on the Polish market of café services in Warsaw. The work contains a theoretical and an empirical part. The aim of the work is to evaluate the effectiveness of different ways of running a café in the form of creating your own brand, a network café franchise or cooperation based on an agency agreement. Materials and methods: The work was based on the problem literature, materials made available by companies offering cooperation in the cafeteria industry and reports from a research company regarding the HoReCa market. A prospective ex-ante analysis has been given the form of a business plan for a newly created coffee shop. Results: The basics of creating a new enterprise were discussed and the undertaking was characterized taking into account the location, competition, employment plan, marketing and risk assessment. A SWOT analysis and financial forecasts were prepared, taking into account capital expenditures, demand forecast, revenues, costs and margins, as well as the analysis of other financial parameters. Conclusions: Available business models offer the investor a wide range of investment options. The choice of a business model depends both on the investor’s expectations and its proneness to risk taking as well as on the location of the planned undertaking.
Mieczysław Adamowicz and Magdalena Zwolińska-Ligaj
Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the analysis is the concept of rural development in the European Union countries and its connection with the evolution of the common agricultural policy and the transformation of the cohesion policy. The aim of the study is to discover and assess the scale and method of supporting the rural development in the European Union countries through common agricultural policy and to present the underlying theoretical-cognitive and political-practical premises for shaping rural development strategies.
Materials and methods: The official documents and subject literature are submitted for critical analysis and evaluation by authors.
Results: This paper presents methods of defining and classifying rural areas and rural development through common agricultural policy and cohesion policy. It specifically outlines the concepts of multi-functional and intelligent development linked to the Europe 2020 strategy and the Cork political declarations. The new concept of smart villages and rural-urban partnership is also presented.
Conclusion: The processes of rural policy separation and the need for creating national methods of the coordination of community policies and the use of European funds are indicated.